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Gender Differences in Mood Management and Mood Adjustment
Unformatted Document Text:  9 task, (c) two rumination tasks, or (d) a rumination task and then a distraction task. Results showed that both group (a) and (b) reported lower levels of depression than after the mood induction in measurements after the first and the second task. Furthermore, group (d) indicated a depressed mood after the first task but a better mood after the second task. Finally, group (c) remained depressed throughout both tasks. Thus immediate distraction leads to better mood, even if followed by rumination, whereas bad moods sustain as long as the individual ruminates. If Trask and Sigmon (1999) are correct in assuming that individuals do not only apply one mood regulation strategy, then accumulated selective exposure measures in mood management investigations might veil that participants engage in different behaviors across time. Possibly, men seek to distract themselves first in order to overcome a depressed state, whereas women might initially ruminate before finally seeking distraction. Such a pattern would comply with response style theory but can also explain why accumulated selective exposure patterns not always reflect gender differences in mood-regulation styles. Mood Adjustment Approach A study by Knobloch (2003) showed that different mood-regulating strategies via media use can indeed be pursued within a relatively brief period. This investigation examined the mood adjustment approach ( Knobloch , 2003), which suggests that oftentimes media users do not only aim to optimize their mood, as original mood management theory had postulated. Instead, media users frequently anticipate upcoming situations and activities which may call for specific moods. In order to regulate moods accordingly, individuals may employ media stimuli. In the empirical study, participants performed an initial task and were then free to sample from pop music during an ostensible waiting period of seven minutes. The findings indicated that participants allocated the first part of the listening period as mood management would predict, apparently pursuing mood optimization goals. However, as additional activities approached toward the end of the listening

Authors: Knobloch, Silvia.
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task, (c) two rumination tasks, or (d) a rumination task and then a distraction task. Results showed
that both group (a) and (b) reported lower levels of depression than after the mood induction in
measurements after the first and the second task. Furthermore, group (d) indicated a depressed
mood after the first task but a better mood after the second task. Finally, group (c) remained
depressed throughout both tasks. Thus immediate distraction leads to better mood, even if followed
by rumination, whereas bad moods sustain as long as the individual ruminates.
If Trask and Sigmon (1999) are correct in assuming that individuals do not only apply one
mood regulation strategy, then accumulated selective exposure measures in mood management
investigations might veil that participants engage in different behaviors across time. Possibly, men
seek to distract themselves first in order to overcome a depressed state, whereas women might
initially ruminate before finally seeking distraction. Such a pattern would comply with response
style theory but can also explain why accumulated selective exposure patterns not always reflect
gender differences in mood-regulation styles.
Mood Adjustment Approach
A study by
Knobloch
(2003) showed that different mood-regulating strategies via media use
can indeed be pursued within a relatively brief period. This investigation examined the mood
adjustment approach (
Knobloch
, 2003), which suggests that oftentimes media users do not only aim
to optimize their mood, as original mood management theory had postulated. Instead, media users
frequently anticipate upcoming situations and activities which may call for specific moods. In order
to regulate moods accordingly, individuals may employ media stimuli. In the empirical study,
participants performed an initial task and were then free to sample from pop music during an
ostensible waiting period of seven minutes. The findings indicated that participants allocated the
first part of the listening period as mood management would predict, apparently pursuing mood
optimization goals. However, as additional activities approached toward the end of the listening


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