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Cultural Schema Differences and Similarities Between Japanese Expatriates and Local Employees Working for Japanese Subsidiaries
Unformatted Document Text:  Cultural schema differences and similarities between Japanese expatriates and local employees working for Japanese subsidiaries in China, the Philippines, Malaysia and the U.S.A. In this paper, findings from the project on cognitive gaps between Japanese expatriates and local employees working for Japanese subsidiaries in Asian countries and the U.S.A. are reported. In this project, 2,558 participants in China, the Philippines, Malaysia and the U.S. completed the Cultural Schema Questionnaire (H. Nishida, 1999, 2000, in press). Four objectives motivated the investigation into cultural schemas and their differences and similarities across cultures. The first objective was to determine whether the cultural schema scales of the Cultural Schema Questionnaire that is based on cultural schema theory was valid. The second objective was to investigate whether the cognitive reactions of local-employee groups i.e., Chinese, Filipinos, Chinese Malaysians, Malay Malaysians and Americans toward the behaviors of Japanese expatriates are likely to vary across the 5 cultural groups i.e., even among Asians who have been indicated as collectivists; Casimir & Keats, 1996; Hofstede, 1980; Hui & Triandis, 1986; Markus & Kitayama, 1991; Shuper, Sorrentino, Otsubo, Hodson, & Waler, 2004; Triandis, McCusker, & Hui, 1990 . The third objective was to investigate whether Japanese expatriates’ cognitive reactions toward the behaviors of local employees are likely to vary across the 5 Japanese groups i.e., even among those working in Asian countries that have been reported as collectivistic; Gudykunst, Matsumoto, Ting-Toomey, T. Nishida, Kim, & Heyman, 1996; Hofstede, 1980; Hsu, 1981; Hui, 1990; Mendenhall, Punnett, & Ricks, 1995 . The fourth and final objective was to investigate whether people’s cognitions are influenced by their cultural schemas and therefore cognitive reactions toward the other cultural members’ behaviors are affected by the cultural schemas of their own and those of the other cultural members Abelson, 1981; Barsalou & Sewell, 1985; Chi, 1981; Mandler, 1984; Minsky, 1977; H. Nishida, 2000, 2003, in press; Schank & Abelson, 1977; Taylor & Crocker, 1981). In this project, it is assumed that cognitive differences are explained by the cultural schemas that Japanese expatriates and local employees have acquired in their own cultures and those that they both Japanese and local employees have obtained while working for Japanese subsidiaries. Because objectives mentioned above are greatly influenced by schema theory, I begin with a brief review of the theory see Cohen, Kiss, & Le Voi, 1993; Mandler, 1979, 1984; Rumelhart, 1980; Schank & Abelson, 1977; Taylor & Crocker, 1981; Thorndyke, 1984; R. Turner, 1994; among others).

Authors: Nishida, Hiroko.
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background image
Cultural schema differences and similarities between Japanese expatriates and local employees working
for
Japanese subsidiaries in China, the Philippines, Malaysia and the U.S.A.
In this paper, findings from the project on cognitive gaps between Japanese expatriates and local employees
working for Japanese subsidiaries in Asian countries and the U.S.A. are reported. In this project, 2,558
participants in China, the Philippines, Malaysia and the U.S. completed the Cultural Schema Questionnaire (H.
Nishida, 1999, 2000, in press).
Four objectives motivated the investigation into cultural schemas and their differences and similarities across
cultures. The first objective was to determine whether the cultural schema scales of the Cultural Schema
Questionnaire that is based on cultural schema theory was valid. The second objective was to investigate whether
the cognitive reactions of local-employee groups
i.e., Chinese, Filipinos, Chinese Malaysians, Malay Malaysians
and Americans
toward the behaviors of Japanese expatriates are likely to vary across the 5 cultural groups
i.e.,
even among Asians who have been indicated as collectivists; Casimir & Keats, 1996; Hofstede, 1980; Hui &
Triandis, 1986; Markus & Kitayama, 1991; Shuper, Sorrentino, Otsubo, Hodson, & Waler, 2004; Triandis,
McCusker, & Hui, 1990
. The third objective was to investigate whether Japanese expatriates’ cognitive reactions
toward the behaviors of local employees are likely to vary across the 5 Japanese groups
i.e., even among those
working in Asian countries that have been reported as collectivistic; Gudykunst, Matsumoto, Ting-Toomey, T.
Nishida, Kim, & Heyman, 1996; Hofstede, 1980; Hsu, 1981; Hui, 1990; Mendenhall, Punnett, & Ricks, 1995
.
The fourth and final objective was to investigate whether people’s cognitions are influenced by their cultural
schemas and therefore cognitive reactions toward the other cultural members’ behaviors are affected by the
cultural schemas of their own and those of the other cultural members
Abelson, 1981; Barsalou & Sewell, 1985;
Chi, 1981; Mandler, 1984; Minsky, 1977; H. Nishida, 2000, 2003, in press; Schank & Abelson, 1977; Taylor &
Crocker, 1981).
In this project, it is assumed that cognitive differences are explained by the cultural schemas that Japanese
expatriates and local employees have acquired in their own cultures and those that they
both Japanese and local
employees
have obtained while working for Japanese subsidiaries. Because objectives mentioned above are
greatly influenced by schema theory, I begin with a brief review of the theory
see Cohen, Kiss, & Le Voi, 1993;
Mandler, 1979, 1984; Rumelhart, 1980; Schank & Abelson, 1977; Taylor & Crocker, 1981; Thorndyke, 1984; R.
Turner, 1994; among others).


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