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Predictors of Instant Messaging: Gratifications Sought, Gratifications Obtained, and Social Presence

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Abstract:

While numerous studies provide evidence on how Instant Messaging is used in the workplace, there is little empirical evidence on how IM is used among college students, the largest segment of the rapidly growing IM user population.
An online survey of college student IM users (N=443) was conducted to examine the role of three important concepts—gratifications sought (GS), gratifications obtained (GO), and social presence—in the context of IM use.
Results indicate that 1) College students used IM to seek fulfillment of social utility, interpersonal utility, convenience, entertainment/relaxation, and information needs and did so successfully through IM use. The two most salient gratifications (both sought and obtained) were convenience and social utility. 2) Social presence was positively and significantly related to GS and GO. The mediating role of social presence suggested that the relationship between GS and GO depends on the extent to which college students feel a sense of “being together.” 3) The convenience motive, followed by the entertainment/relaxation motive and the convenience benefit were the strongest predictors of IM use. 4) Both GS and GO were influenced by social presence and GS had a direct effect on IM use, while GO had an indirect effect.
Implications for extending uses and gratifications and social presence theory and research are discussed.

Most Common Document Word Stems:

im (228), use (217), social (146), presenc (130), gratif (120), go (80), gs (75), studi (64), obtain (58), communic (52), media (50), factor (50), sought (46), need (44), user (43), student (41), research (40), util (36), 1 (35), actual (34), colleg (34),

Author's Keywords:

uses and gratifications, Instant Messaging, social presence, online interaction
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Association:
Name: International Communication Association
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http://www.icahdq.org


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MLA Citation:

Hwang, HaSung. "Predictors of Instant Messaging: Gratifications Sought, Gratifications Obtained, and Social Presence" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, Sheraton New York, New York City, NY, <Not Available>. 2009-05-25 <http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p14133_index.html>

APA Citation:

Hwang, H. "Predictors of Instant Messaging: Gratifications Sought, Gratifications Obtained, and Social Presence" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, Sheraton New York, New York City, NY Online <PDF>. 2009-05-25 from http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p14133_index.html

Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: While numerous studies provide evidence on how Instant Messaging is used in the workplace, there is little empirical evidence on how IM is used among college students, the largest segment of the rapidly growing IM user population.
An online survey of college student IM users (N=443) was conducted to examine the role of three important concepts—gratifications sought (GS), gratifications obtained (GO), and social presence—in the context of IM use.
Results indicate that 1) College students used IM to seek fulfillment of social utility, interpersonal utility, convenience, entertainment/relaxation, and information needs and did so successfully through IM use. The two most salient gratifications (both sought and obtained) were convenience and social utility. 2) Social presence was positively and significantly related to GS and GO. The mediating role of social presence suggested that the relationship between GS and GO depends on the extent to which college students feel a sense of “being together.” 3) The convenience motive, followed by the entertainment/relaxation motive and the convenience benefit were the strongest predictors of IM use. 4) Both GS and GO were influenced by social presence and GS had a direct effect on IM use, while GO had an indirect effect.
Implications for extending uses and gratifications and social presence theory and research are discussed.

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Document Type: PDF
Page count: 34
Word count: 9174
Text sample:
Predictors of Instant Messaging Use: Gratifications Sought Gratifications Obtained and Social Presence We often need responses from people instantly but sometimes emails sit unread or are not delivered because the intended recipient’s mailbox is full or telephone calls connect with voice mail because the actual person is not available. This is where Instant Messaging services can become a “wonderful savior” (Peng 2002). Instant Messaging (IM) has established a popular mode of communication for people with access to the Internet.
.000 GS 4 (Entertainment/Relaxation) .222*** 4.079 .000 GO 3 (Convenience) .137* 2.854 .032 Model 1: R=.31 F[1 427]=43.003 p<.001 Model 2: R=.34 F[2 426]=24.942 p<.001 Model 3: R=.39 F[3 425]=20.809 p<.001 *p<.05 ***p<.001 Figure 1. Path model of relationships among GS GO and social presence SP 0.13* GS IM 0.58** USE 0.71* GO 0.18* Note: *p< .05 **p< .01 34


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