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"Are you talking to me?": The effect of direct address on viewer attention and arousal
Unformatted Document Text:  Direct address in reality TV 5 dislike for a particular character, numerous clips depicting different cast members were created representing the three experimental conditions. These clips were then randomly assembled into one of four viewing orders to control for any possible order effects. Design & Participants Undergraduate students recruited from introductory communication classes at a large university will serve as research participants for the study. Students will participate in exchange for extra credit or to satisfy course research participation requirements. Data collection is scheduled to begin pending approval from the University’s Institutional Review Board. Participants will be randomly assigned to view one order of the stimulus materials. Level of direct address will be a within-subjects variable with participants viewing clips from all three experimental conditions, whereas order will be a between-subjects variable. Prior to exposure to the stimulus materials, participants will view approximately 15 minutes of footage from the first episode of the series to become familiar both with the characters on the program as well as the nature of the competition. After viewing the introductory footage, participants will view the stimulus materials. After each clip, the stimulus presentation will be stopped and participants will be instructed to complete a number of paper-and-pencil measures. Dependent Variables A number of measures will be taken to assess viewer response to the stimulus materials. Physiological measures will be recorded for each participant during the presentation of the stimulus clips. Heart rate data will be collected as a measure of attention (Lang, 1994). Skin conductance data will be collected as an indication of autonomic arousal to the stimulus clips. In addition to these physiological measures, self-report measures of emotional arousal and valence will be assessed using the pictorial Self-Assessment Manikin (Lang, et. al., 1993).

Authors: Cummins, R.. and Bradford, Mary Beth.
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Direct address in reality TV 5
dislike for a particular character, numerous clips depicting different cast members were created
representing the three experimental conditions. These clips were then randomly assembled into
one of four viewing orders to control for any possible order effects.
Design & Participants
Undergraduate students recruited from introductory communication classes at a large
university will serve as research participants for the study. Students will participate in exchange
for extra credit or to satisfy course research participation requirements. Data collection is
scheduled to begin pending approval from the University’s Institutional Review Board.
Participants will be randomly assigned to view one order of the stimulus materials. Level
of direct address will be a within-subjects variable with participants viewing clips from all three
experimental conditions, whereas order will be a between-subjects variable. Prior to exposure to
the stimulus materials, participants will view approximately 15 minutes of footage from the first
episode of the series to become familiar both with the characters on the program as well as the
nature of the competition. After viewing the introductory footage, participants will view the
stimulus materials. After each clip, the stimulus presentation will be stopped and participants
will be instructed to complete a number of paper-and-pencil measures.
Dependent Variables
A number of measures will be taken to assess viewer response to the stimulus materials.
Physiological measures will be recorded for each participant during the presentation of the
stimulus clips. Heart rate data will be collected as a measure of attention (Lang, 1994). Skin
conductance data will be collected as an indication of autonomic arousal to the stimulus clips. In
addition to these physiological measures, self-report measures of emotional arousal and valence
will be assessed using the pictorial Self-Assessment Manikin (Lang, et. al., 1993).


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