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From Silence to Dissent: Fostering Critical Voice in an Era of Compliance
Unformatted Document Text:  right in a way that either facilitates or causes others to rethink their classrooms? Have we prepared them in the art of resistance and dissent? Our suspicion is that we have not and our conviction is that these questions must frame teacher education. But, perhaps, there is hope for those teachers who are prepared differently. Hope for those who have internalized Freire’s (1970) desire for liberation in the form of “ problem- posing education” or Giroux’s (1985) insistence that teachers think of themselves as “transformative intellectuals” or even Postman and Weingartner’s (1969) urging that teachers be vigilant “crap” detectors. Ohanian (2004) warns us that teachers must be educated rather than trained, that offering recipes leads only to the deskilling of teachers, that teaching practice be informed by philosophy and art and music rather than simply by experts “ who promise the keys to classroom control and creative bulletin boards, along with 100 steps to reading success.” It was through the back and forth of our conversation, the student-to-student exchange, the horizontal communication between faculty and students where all participants were peers, that reminded us all of the importance and power of these kinds of discussions to inform teaching and learning. References Apple, M.W. (2001). Comparing neo-liberal projects and inequality in education. Comparative Education, 37(4), 409-423. Canestrari, A. & Marlowe, B.A. (2004). Educational foundations: An anthology of critical readings. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Cuban L. (1980). Reforming again, again, and again. Educational Researcher, 19(1), 4-13 Dewey, J. (1938). Experience and education. New York: Touchstone.Capraro, M.M. (2001). Defining constructivism: Its influence on the problem solving skills of students. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 452204) Cole, B. & McGuire, M. (2004) . Young children’s construction of understanding about families and citizenship using Storypath. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 479143. Freire, P. (1974). Pedagogy of the oppressed. New York: Seabury.Giroux, H. (1985). Teachers as transformative intellectuals. Social Action, May.Goodlad, J. I. (1984). A place called school: Prospects for the future. New York: McGraw-Hill. Kohn (2004). Personal communication.Marlowe, B.A. & Page, M.L. (1998). Creating and sustaining the constructivist classroom. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. Postman, N. & Weingartner, C. (1969). Teaching as a subversive activity. New York: Delacort Press. Shaps, E. (1993). In A. Kohn (1994). Grading: The issue is not how, but why. Educational Leadership, October, 1994. Spinner, H. & Fraser, B.J. (2002). Evaluation of an innovative mathematics program in terms of classroom environment, student attitudes, and conceptual development. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service Number ED464829).Thomason, J.E. (2003). Improving bilingual student learning and thinking skills through the use of constructivist theory. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service Number ED479390). Tyack, D. & Cuban, L. (1995). Tinkering toward utopia: A century of public

Authors: Marlowe, Bruce. and Canestrari, Alan.
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right in a way that either facilitates or causes others to rethink their classrooms? Have we
prepared them in the art of resistance and dissent? Our suspicion is that we have not and
our conviction is that these questions must frame teacher education.
But, perhaps, there is hope for those teachers who are prepared differently. Hope
for those who have internalized Freire’s (1970) desire for liberation in the form of “
problem- posing education” or Giroux’s (1985) insistence that teachers think of
themselves as “transformative intellectuals” or even Postman and Weingartner’s (1969)
urging that teachers be vigilant “crap” detectors. Ohanian (2004) warns us that teachers
must be educated rather than trained, that offering recipes leads only to the deskilling of
teachers, that teaching practice be informed by philosophy and art and music rather than
simply by experts “ who promise the keys to classroom control and creative bulletin
boards, along with 100 steps to reading success.”
It was through the back and forth of our conversation, the student-to-student exchange,
the horizontal communication between faculty and students where all participants were
peers, that reminded us all of the importance and power of these kinds of discussions to
inform teaching and learning.
References
Apple, M.W. (2001). Comparing neo-liberal projects and inequality in education.
Comparative Education, 37(4), 409-423.
Canestrari, A. & Marlowe, B.A. (2004). Educational foundations: An anthology
of critical readings. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Cuban L. (1980). Reforming again, again, and again. Educational Researcher,
19(1), 4-13
Dewey, J. (1938). Experience and education. New York: Touchstone.
Capraro, M.M. (2001). Defining constructivism: Its influence on the problem
solving skills of students. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED
452204)
Cole, B. & McGuire, M. (2004) . Young children’s construction of understanding
about families and citizenship using Storypath. (ERIC Document
Reproduction Service No. ED 479143.
Freire, P. (1974). Pedagogy of the oppressed. New York: Seabury.
Giroux, H. (1985). Teachers as transformative intellectuals. Social Action, May.
Goodlad, J. I. (1984). A place called school: Prospects for the future. New York:
McGraw-Hill.
Kohn (2004). Personal communication.
Marlowe, B.A. & Page, M.L. (1998). Creating and sustaining the constructivist
classroom. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
Postman, N. & Weingartner, C. (1969). Teaching as a subversive activity. New
York: Delacort Press.
Shaps, E. (1993). In A. Kohn (1994). Grading: The issue is not how, but
why. Educational Leadership, October, 1994.
Spinner, H. & Fraser, B.J. (2002). Evaluation of an innovative mathematics
program in terms of classroom environment, student attitudes, and
conceptual development. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service Number ED464829).
Thomason, J.E. (2003). Improving bilingual student learning and thinking skills
through the use of constructivist theory. (ERIC Document Reproduction
Service Number ED479390).
Tyack, D. & Cuban, L. (1995). Tinkering toward utopia: A century of public


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