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Redesigning Educational Leadership Programs of Study to Better Address A Standards-
Unformatted Document Text:  Statement of the Issue:Educational leadership programs of study have come under intense criticism over the last 5-10 years. Much of the criticism is aimed at too much theory taught by those who have never run a school or served in a school district as a supervisor/ superintendent. This researcher’s state has chosen to require all universities offering a school leadership program of studies to revise their program of studies to include a standard-based approach and to ensure a number of field-based experiences associated with the training. In addition, consultants from national associations examined credentials of those providing the training to focus on experiences needed to provide a quality program. In all, this presentation will focus on the processes and initiatives used by one university to revise and redesign its training program to meet the needs school accountability movements. Passage of the ISLLC exam (at the state required level)is the capstone experience. Literature Review:Educational leadership preparation programs have been under constant criticism for the past twenty years (Finn, 2003: Murphy, 1992; 1993). This criticism has reached a fevered pitch with the recent release of a scathing report on the quality of educational leadership programs across the country (Levine, 2005). Largely, Levine and others have hit a nerve within the profession by raising “undiscussable” issues. Unlike some who respond to this criticism in a defensive posture, this project views this criticism as a productive opportunity to try a different approach to preparing and supporting school leaders. By trying a different approach, this project allows the designers to reflect and put into practice some ideas on how educational leadership program can better prepare aspirants and support new and less experienced principal and assistant principals to be effective school leaders who are advocates of high need schools. It has been written that educational leadership preparation programs are mostly about preparing students for the transition from teacher to principal (Crow &Glascock, 1995), that is socialization from a teaching culture to administrative culture (White & Crow, 1993). This process focuses on learning new language and communication skills to be able to change from one role orientation to another. Hence, opportunities to view the principalship though collaborative work between practicing and aspiring principals are essential (Lumsden, 1992; Krueger & Milstein, 1995). Research has demonstrated that situated learning increases role clarification, develops technical expertise, minimizes role ambiguity (Daresh, 2002; Playko & Daresh, 1992), changes conceptions about the principalship (Milstein & Krueger, 1997; White & Crow, 1993), and helps develop important leadership skills and professional behaviors (Capasso & Daresh, 2001; Cordeiro& Smith0Sloan, 1995; Lumsden, 1992). It has been recognized that school leaders go through a developmental stage from novice to expert principal. The most commonly used term s for the three major phases of principal development are: pre-service, induction, and in-service. In the United States, the term professional development, or more recently, leadership development, is often used to cover all three phases. A number of studies suggest that heads and principals move through a series of developmental stages as they experience socialization (Crow & Glasscock, 1995). The evidence shows that school leaders do not emerge from training programs fully prepared and completely effective. Their development is a more involved and incremental process, beginning as early as their own schooling and extending through their first years on the job as leaders. Becoming a school leader is as ongoing

Authors: Gullatt, David.
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Statement of the Issue:
Educational leadership programs of study have come under intense criticism over the last
5-10 years. Much of the criticism is aimed at too much theory taught by those who have
never run a school or served in a school district as a supervisor/ superintendent. This
researcher’s state has chosen to require all universities offering a school leadership
program of studies to revise their program of studies to include a standard-based
approach and to ensure a number of field-based experiences associated with the training.
In addition, consultants from national associations examined credentials of those
providing the training to focus on experiences needed to provide a quality program. In
all, this presentation will focus on the processes and initiatives used by one university to
revise and redesign its training program to meet the needs school accountability
movements. Passage of the ISLLC exam (at the state required level)is the capstone
experience.
Literature Review:
Educational leadership preparation programs have been under constant criticism for the
past twenty years (Finn, 2003: Murphy, 1992; 1993). This criticism has reached a fevered
pitch with the recent release of a scathing report on the quality of educational leadership
programs across the country (Levine, 2005). Largely, Levine and others have hit a nerve
within the profession by raising “undiscussable” issues. Unlike some who respond to this
criticism in a defensive posture, this project views this criticism as a productive
opportunity to try a different approach to preparing and supporting school leaders. By
trying a different approach, this project allows the designers to reflect and put into
practice some ideas on how educational leadership program can better prepare aspirants
and support new and less experienced principal and assistant principals to be effective
school leaders who are advocates of high need schools.
It has been written that educational leadership preparation programs are mostly
about preparing students for the transition from teacher to principal (Crow &Glascock,
1995), that is socialization from a teaching culture to administrative culture (White &
Crow, 1993). This process focuses on learning new language and communication skills to
be able to change from one role orientation to another. Hence, opportunities to view the
principalship though collaborative work between practicing and aspiring principals are
essential (Lumsden, 1992; Krueger & Milstein, 1995). Research has demonstrated that
situated learning increases role clarification, develops technical expertise, minimizes role
ambiguity (Daresh, 2002; Playko & Daresh, 1992), changes conceptions about the
principalship (Milstein & Krueger, 1997; White & Crow, 1993), and helps develop
important leadership skills and professional behaviors (Capasso & Daresh, 2001;
Cordeiro& Smith0Sloan, 1995; Lumsden, 1992). It has been recognized that school
leaders go through a developmental stage from novice to expert principal.
The most commonly used term s for the three major phases of principal
development are: pre-service, induction, and in-service. In the United States, the term
professional development, or more recently, leadership development, is often used to
cover all three phases. A number of studies suggest that heads and principals move
through a series of developmental stages as they experience socialization (Crow &
Glasscock, 1995). The evidence shows that school leaders do not emerge from training
programs fully prepared and completely effective. Their development is a more involved
and incremental process, beginning as early as their own schooling and extending
through their first years on the job as leaders. Becoming a school leader is as ongoing


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