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Teacher Induction Programs and the Mentoring Process: The CADRE Project
Unformatted Document Text:  B. Literature Review: Issues in Teacher Induction Teacher Induction Programs The importance of the mentor teacher as a valuable asset to the beginning teacher has been proven by numerous studies (Bey & Holmes, 1990; Brooks, 1987; Carter, 1990). The teacher induction programs that have succeeded have used mentor teachers with similar grade level and subject matter background. These master teachers have been invaluable in helping teachers develop management skill, subject matter confidence, and pedagogical knowledge (Feiman-Nemser & Parker, 1990). Understanding the needs of the beginning teacher is another area of research that has influenced the development of teacher induction programs. Research has found that beginning teachers have predictable concerns about management, curriculum, and assessment practice. They have to build efficacy about their abilities to solve problems and work independently of mentors. And most of all they have a need to communicate with other teachers about teaching in a risk free environment, and observe other teachers teaching. They need many opportunities to develop proficiency (Burke, Fessler, & Christensen, 1984; Peterson & Comeaux, 1987; Darling-Hammond, 1997). Trust and the Mentoring Relationship Scholars have widely acknowledged that trust can lead to cooperative behavior among individuals, groups, and organizations (Gambetta, 1988; Good, 1988; McAllister, 1995). In an era where organizations are searching for new ways to promote cooperation between people and groups, it is not surprising that interest in the concept of trust and, in particular, how to promote or actualize trust is increasing (Kramer & Tyler, 1996). This holds true for educational organizations, which are searching for new ways to induct teachers, with mentoring as a key component of the induction process. Definitions of Trust.Trust has been defined many different ways in the literature. Common to the definitions are the level of openness that exists between two people, the degree to which one person feels assured that another will not take malevolent or arbitrary actions, and the extent to which one person can expect predictability in the other’s behavior in terms of what is “normally” expected of a person acting in good faith (Gabarro, 1978). Trust in Schools.Trust in schools has been called the foundation of school effectiveness (Cunningham & Gresso, 1993). When trust is present, individuals can focus on the task at hand, which results in a more productive working and learning environment. The key to developing mentoring relationships that help beginning teachers learn the ways of thinking and acting associated with reform-minded and effective teaching practices may be the level of trust that is developed and maintained in the mentor-beginning teacher relationship. By acquiring more knowledge about the element of trust in the relationship, school districts may gain information specifically useful in selecting and training mentors. The concept of trust has been explored in several social science literatures – psychology, sociology, political science, economics, anthropology, history, and sociobiology (Gambetta, 1988; Lewicki & Bunker, 1996; Worchel, 1979). Each of the social sciences examines trust from its individual disciplinary perspective. In the profession of education, trust has been examined primarily from the perspective of faculty trust in principals and faculty trust in colleagues, which are important elements of organizational life in schools, but which represent only part of the complex trust

Authors: McGlamery, Sheryl. and Edick, Nancy.
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B. Literature Review: Issues in Teacher Induction
Teacher Induction Programs
The importance of the mentor teacher as a valuable asset to the beginning teacher has
been proven by numerous studies (Bey & Holmes, 1990; Brooks, 1987; Carter, 1990).
The teacher induction programs that have succeeded have used mentor teachers with
similar grade level and subject matter background. These master teachers have been
invaluable in helping teachers develop management skill, subject matter confidence, and
pedagogical knowledge (Feiman-Nemser & Parker, 1990).
Understanding the needs of the beginning teacher is another area of research that has
influenced the development of teacher induction programs. Research has found that
beginning teachers have predictable concerns about management, curriculum, and
assessment practice. They have to build efficacy about their abilities to solve problems
and work independently of mentors. And most of all they have a need to communicate
with other teachers about teaching in a risk free environment, and observe other teachers
teaching. They need many opportunities to develop proficiency (Burke, Fessler, &
Christensen, 1984; Peterson & Comeaux, 1987; Darling-Hammond, 1997).
Trust and the Mentoring Relationship
Scholars have widely acknowledged that trust can lead to cooperative behavior
among individuals, groups, and organizations (Gambetta, 1988; Good, 1988; McAllister,
1995). In an era where organizations are searching for new ways to promote cooperation
between people and groups, it is not surprising that interest in the concept of trust and, in
particular, how to promote or actualize trust is increasing (Kramer & Tyler, 1996). This
holds true for educational organizations, which are searching for new ways to induct
teachers, with mentoring as a key component of the induction process.
Definitions of Trust.
Trust has been defined many different ways in the literature. Common to the
definitions are the level of openness that exists between two people, the degree to which
one person feels assured that another will not take malevolent or arbitrary actions, and the
extent to which one person can expect predictability in the other’s behavior in terms of
what is “normally” expected of a person acting in good faith (Gabarro, 1978).
Trust in Schools.
Trust in schools has been called the foundation of school effectiveness
(Cunningham & Gresso, 1993). When trust is present, individuals can focus on the task
at hand, which results in a more productive working and learning environment.
The key to developing mentoring relationships that help beginning teachers learn
the ways of thinking and acting associated with reform-minded and effective teaching
practices may be the level of trust that is developed and maintained in the mentor-
beginning teacher relationship. By acquiring more knowledge about the element of trust
in the relationship, school districts may gain information specifically useful in selecting
and training mentors.
The concept of trust has been explored in several social science literatures –
psychology, sociology, political science, economics, anthropology, history, and
sociobiology (Gambetta, 1988; Lewicki & Bunker, 1996; Worchel, 1979). Each of the
social sciences examines trust from its individual disciplinary perspective. In the
profession of education, trust has been examined primarily from the perspective of
faculty trust in principals and faculty trust in colleagues, which are important elements of
organizational life in schools, but which represent only part of the complex trust


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