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Metacognitive Approach to Student Teacher Improvement Within the PDS Paradigm
Unformatted Document Text:  of emersion. Also, many PDSs follow their placements with a year of residency. Zeichner and Miller (1997) convey the differences in experiences between PDS and traditional teacher preparation models by the following: The existing literature on SBS [School Based Studies] in PDSs has made it fairly clear that several significant changes are occurring in SBS asthey become situated in Professional Development Schools. These includean increase n the amount of time spent by preservice teachers in schools, more planned and purposeful experiences for student teachers, a greater focuson the whole school as the placement site, an increased emphasis on collaboration among teachers and peers, greater access to universitysupervisors, a greater respect for teacher knowledge and more decisionmaking about the program by school staff, and more access to workshopsand seminars on mentoring student teachers for school staff. (pp. 37-38) Tom Russell (1998) questions the general design of teacher education programs that reserve extended experiences in the schools for the last year or semester of teacher candidates’ preparatory program. Current models that start with classes on theory followed by a practical experience give teacher candidates the impression "that we have no faith in new teachers' ability to learn from experience, and they do hear that implicit message" (53). Russell believes that teacher training should begin and end with practical experiences. In this model, the university becomes a place to build "on experiences in a broad range of ways, from swapping experiences to reinterpreting them and assembling resources to meet goals identified through experience" (53).Of note regarding studies of outcomes for teacher candidates is that most are based on self-reported data collected from a variety of survey instruments. These surveys, according to the literature, focus on self-perceptions of efficacy and readiness to teach. Several studies use surveys to illuminate changes in the student teaching experiences while some are directed to PDS program graduates to examine expertise, 4

Authors: Creasy, Kim. and Mraz, Mark.
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of emersion. Also, many PDSs follow their placements with a year of residency.
Zeichner and Miller (1997) convey the differences in experiences between PDS and
traditional teacher preparation models by the following:
The existing literature on SBS [School Based Studies] in PDSs has
made it fairly clear that several significant changes are occurring in SBS as
they become situated in Professional Development Schools. These include
an increase n the amount of time spent by preservice teachers in schools,
more planned and purposeful experiences for student teachers, a greater focus
on the whole school as the placement site, an increased emphasis on
collaboration among teachers and peers, greater access to university
supervisors, a greater respect for teacher knowledge and more decision
making about the program by school staff, and more access to workshops
and seminars on mentoring student teachers for school staff. (pp. 37-38)
Tom Russell (1998) questions the general design of teacher education
programs that reserve extended experiences in the schools for the last year or
semester of teacher candidates’ preparatory program. Current models that start
with classes on theory followed by a practical experience give teacher candidates
the impression "that we have no faith in new teachers' ability to learn from
experience, and they do hear that implicit message" (53). Russell believes that
teacher training should begin and end with practical experiences. In this model,
the university becomes a place to build "on experiences in a broad range of ways,
from swapping experiences to reinterpreting them and assembling resources to
meet goals identified through experience" (53).Of note regarding studies of
outcomes for teacher candidates is that most are based on self-reported data
collected from a variety of survey instruments. These surveys, according to the
literature, focus on self-perceptions of efficacy and readiness to teach. Several
studies use surveys to illuminate changes in the student teaching experiences
while some are directed to PDS program graduates to examine expertise,
4


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