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Cooperation as an Interest Group Strategy: Implementation of Sections 9 & 10 of the Endangered Species Act (1982, as Amended)
Unformatted Document Text:  2 the land, should that species inhabit the property. Thus, the law prevents the owner from extracting the benefits of his property, which are then transferred to the species in question and society as a whole. On the other hand, environmental organizations feel that government is not working fast or hard enough to prevent the loss of biodiversity. Habitat destruction and degradation accounts for the endangerment of 88% of at-risk species (Noss, O'Connell, and Murphy 1997). Suburban sprawl in the western states, particularly Southern California, has brought the tension between development and protection into sharp relief. For example, the Delhi Sands fly, with a two-day life span, has prevented development in Riverside County, an area expected to grow by 1.7 million people by 2020; the financial cost to bondholders alone is estimated at $100,000 per month in lost revenue (New York Times 2002). My primary focus is upon the degree of cooperation as a group strategy and satisfaction with the policy implementation outcomes as a predictor of future group behavior. First, I test a general model of how political and group resources, along with the policy context, affect the degree of cooperation interest groups exercise with respect to other stakeholders, including bureaucrats, with cooperation conceived of as a strategic option. Next, this study analyzes satisfaction with the approved regulatory policy, in this case Habitat Conservation Plans (ESA, Section 10), with the assumption being that more satisfied organizations are less likely to continue to delay implementation post-permit. Everything else being equal, what contributes to group satisfaction with the outcome of the Habitat Conservation Plan? This paper first discusses previous literature and research approaches regarding group strategy. I follow with a discussion of what a theory of group behavior might look like. I then operationalize a model of group strategy based on a dimension of cooperation and conflict. Because satisfaction with a final regulatory product may predict future group behavior, I then empirically test a model that would take into account later conflict. Discussion of the overall study in the larger context of group behavior and democrat theory concludes. Insiders? Outsiders? The interest group literature traditionally conceives of group strategy as a dichotomy – inside versus outside. Previous researchers have generally assigned tactics to one of these two categories, with little empirical verification (Baumgartner and Leech 1998; Gais and Walker 1991; Kollman 1998; Leech 1998). For example, Gais and Walker (1991), posited that groups

Authors: Robbins, Suzanne.
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the land, should that species inhabit the property. Thus, the law prevents the owner from
extracting the benefits of his property, which are then transferred to the species in question and
society as a whole.
On the other hand, environmental organizations feel that government is not working fast
or hard enough to prevent the loss of biodiversity. Habitat destruction and degradation accounts
for the endangerment of 88% of at-risk species (Noss, O'Connell, and Murphy 1997). Suburban
sprawl in the western states, particularly Southern California, has brought the tension between
development and protection into sharp relief. For example, the Delhi Sands fly, with a two-day
life span, has prevented development in Riverside County, an area expected to grow by 1.7
million people by 2020; the financial cost to bondholders alone is estimated at $100,000 per
month in lost revenue (New York Times 2002).
My primary focus is upon the degree of cooperation as a group strategy and satisfaction
with the policy implementation outcomes as a predictor of future group behavior. First, I test a
general model of how political and group resources, along with the policy context, affect the
degree of cooperation interest groups exercise with respect to other stakeholders, including
bureaucrats, with cooperation conceived of as a strategic option. Next, this study analyzes
satisfaction with the approved regulatory policy, in this case Habitat Conservation Plans (ESA,
Section 10), with the assumption being that more satisfied organizations are less likely to
continue to delay implementation post-permit. Everything else being equal, what contributes to
group satisfaction with the outcome of the Habitat Conservation Plan?
This paper first discusses previous literature and research approaches regarding group
strategy. I follow with a discussion of what a theory of group behavior might look like. I then
operationalize a model of group strategy based on a dimension of cooperation and conflict.
Because satisfaction with a final regulatory product may predict future group behavior, I then
empirically test a model that would take into account later conflict. Discussion of the overall
study in the larger context of group behavior and democrat theory concludes.
Insiders? Outsiders?
The interest group literature traditionally conceives of group strategy as a dichotomy –
inside versus outside. Previous researchers have generally assigned tactics to one of these two
categories, with little empirical verification (Baumgartner and Leech 1998; Gais and Walker
1991; Kollman 1998; Leech 1998). For example, Gais and Walker (1991), posited that groups


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