All Academic, Inc. Research Logo

Info/CitationFAQResearchAll Academic Inc.
Document

Symbolic Racism of Color: How Asians and Latinos View Affirmative Action
Unformatted Document Text:  Introduction 1 While racism has a long history in the United States, most of it has focused on a confrontation between blacks and whites. Yet racial prejudice does not only exist between blacks and whites. Other non-black minority groups also experience discrimination in various forms that are often under-studied by social scientists. The studies on symbolic racism have no exception and almost all of them are based on findings from white respondents. This whites-only research agenda is mainly due to its conceptualization. Proponents of symbolic racism originally theorized it as whites’ resentment toward special treatments for blacks while whites denied the continuing role of discrimination. They defined symbolic racism as “a blend of anti-black affect and the kind of American traditional values embodied in the Protestant ethic” (Kinder and Sears, 1981). American traditional values and the Protestant work ethic, obviously, all refer to white cultural elements that are used to judge what is proper for a “good American.” This conceptualization unfortunately excludes plausible discrimination by whites toward Asians and Latinos and by Asians and Latinos toward blacks. How do whites react to people of color other than blacks? Do whites treat all racial minorities in similar fashions or do whites differentiate one group from the others? Can this symbolic sentiment extend to other people of color? Will Asians and Latino, to some degree, also internalize anti-black prejudice? As Asian and Latino populations rapidly increase in the United States, intergroup relations no longer are merely between blacks and whites. Race-targeted policies like affirmative action in college admission no longer 1 I would like to thank The Russell Sage Foundation and the UCLA Office of the Chancellor for their kindly support of the research, as well as Jim Sidanius, David O. Sears, and Marilynn B. Brewer for leading the investigation. Additionally, I would like to thank David O. Sears, Mark Sawyer, and Jim Sidanius for their valuable comments on the earlier versions of this article, and Scott Hoaby for his editing suggestions. 2

Authors: Fu, Mingying.
first   previous   Page 3 of 41   next   last



background image
Introduction
While racism has a long history in the United States, most of it has focused on a
confrontation between blacks and whites. Yet racial prejudice does not only exist between
blacks and whites. Other non-black minority groups also experience discrimination in
various forms that are often under-studied by social scientists. The studies on symbolic
racism have no exception and almost all of them are based on findings from white
respondents. This whites-only research agenda is mainly due to its conceptualization.
Proponents of symbolic racism originally theorized it as whites’ resentment toward
special treatments for blacks while whites denied the continuing role of discrimination.
They defined symbolic racism as “a blend of anti-black affect and the kind of American
traditional values embodied in the Protestant ethic” (Kinder and Sears, 1981). American
traditional values and the Protestant work ethic, obviously, all refer to white cultural
elements that are used to judge what is proper for a “good American.” This
conceptualization unfortunately excludes plausible discrimination by whites toward
Asians and Latinos and by Asians and Latinos toward blacks.
How do whites react to people of color other than blacks? Do whites treat all racial
minorities in similar fashions or do whites differentiate one group from the others? Can
this symbolic sentiment extend to other people of color? Will Asians and Latino, to some
degree, also internalize anti-black prejudice? As Asian and Latino populations rapidly
increase in the United States, intergroup relations no longer are merely between blacks
and whites. Race-targeted policies like affirmative action in college admission no longer
1
I would like to thank The Russell Sage Foundation and the UCLA Office of the Chancellor for their
kindly support of the research, as well as Jim Sidanius, David O. Sears, and Marilynn B. Brewer for leading
the investigation. Additionally, I would like to thank David O. Sears, Mark Sawyer, and Jim Sidanius for
their valuable comments on the earlier versions of this article, and Scott Hoaby for his editing suggestions.
2


Convention
All Academic Convention is the premier solution for your association's abstract management solutions needs.
Submission - Custom fields, multiple submission types, tracks, audio visual, multiple upload formats, automatic conversion to pdf.
Review - Peer Review, Bulk reviewer assignment, bulk emails, ranking, z-score statistics, and multiple worksheets!
Reports - Many standard and custom reports generated while you wait. Print programs with participant indexes, event grids, and more!
Scheduling - Flexible and convenient grid scheduling within rooms and buildings. Conflict checking and advanced filtering.
Communication - Bulk email tools to help your administrators send reminders and responses. Use form letters, a message center, and much more!
Management - Search tools, duplicate people management, editing tools, submission transfers, many tools to manage a variety of conference management headaches!
Click here for more information.

first   previous   Page 3 of 41   next   last

©2012 All Academic, Inc.