All Academic, Inc. Research Logo

Info/CitationFAQResearchAll Academic Inc.
Document

Gender & HIV/AIDS in India: Implications for Future Research
Unformatted Document Text:  fertility, since it influences the proportion of the reproductive years that women are exposed to sexual intercourse, especially when premarital sex (for women) is considered taboo, as it is in India. Women's autonomy is likely to be inversely related to the urgency of marriage for daughters, which would influence age at marriage and hence the supply of children. These issues are important to consider when the overwhelming and predominant route of transmission of HIV/AIDS in India is the heterosexual route estimated at 85.69 per cent by the Indian government (Planning Commission 2004). Unmarried women in India are not supposed to be sexually active, preventing single women from seeking out information and condoms at clinics (see also NACO 2004). India’s prevention campaign, largely active in the cities and among sex workers, may not be adequate to keep India’s epidemic from spreading among married women and particularly, the rural population. The relatively less power exercised by women, particularly poor women and those among the lowest caste can lead to women infected with AIDS to be ostracized within their communities. For instance, among the high-risk groups are the devadasis – poor, lower-caste women consecrated to Gods as young girls and then consigned to prostitution – who live particularly in the rural areas of Southern India (Subramaniam 2000). Societal and institutional barriers to meeting women’s needs operate not only with reference to health and educational facilities and power differences within the realm of the home, but also in access to employment, wages and credit (see Goetzé and Sengupta 1996). Norms of seclusion and segregation can limit women's ability to individually challenge power and gender hierarchies within the domestic arena and/or community. Their restricted access to the ‘outside’ world curtails access to sources of information as well as their ability to act on information obtained. The less power women have, the less they can act against traditional practices. 8

Authors: Subramaniam, Mangala.
first   previous   Page 10 of 31   next   last



background image
fertility, since it influences the proportion of the reproductive years that women are exposed to
sexual intercourse, especially when premarital sex (for women) is considered taboo, as it is in
India.
Women's autonomy is likely to be inversely related to the urgency of marriage for
daughters, which would influence age at marriage and hence the supply of children. These issues
are important to consider when the overwhelming and predominant route of transmission of
HIV/AIDS in India is the heterosexual route estimated at 85.69 per cent by the Indian
government (Planning Commission 2004). Unmarried women in India are not supposed to be
sexually active, preventing single women from seeking out information and condoms at clinics
(see also NACO 2004). India’s prevention campaign, largely active in the cities and among sex
workers, may not be adequate to keep India’s epidemic from spreading among married women
and particularly, the rural population. The relatively less power exercised by women,
particularly poor women and those among the lowest caste can lead to women infected with
AIDS to be ostracized within their communities. For instance, among the high-risk groups are
the devadasis – poor, lower-caste women consecrated to Gods as young girls and then consigned
to prostitution – who live particularly in the rural areas of Southern India (Subramaniam 2000).
Societal and institutional barriers to meeting women’s needs operate not only with
reference to health and educational facilities and power differences within the realm of the home,
but also in access to employment, wages and credit (see Goetzé and Sengupta 1996). Norms of
seclusion and segregation can limit women's ability to individually challenge power and gender
hierarchies within the domestic arena and/or community. Their restricted access to the ‘outside’
world curtails access to sources of information as well as their ability to act on information
obtained. The less power women have, the less they can act against traditional practices.
8


Convention
All Academic Convention can solve the abstract management needs for any association's annual meeting.
Submission - Custom fields, multiple submission types, tracks, audio visual, multiple upload formats, automatic conversion to pdf.
Review - Peer Review, Bulk reviewer assignment, bulk emails, ranking, z-score statistics, and multiple worksheets!
Reports - Many standard and custom reports generated while you wait. Print programs with participant indexes, event grids, and more!
Scheduling - Flexible and convenient grid scheduling within rooms and buildings. Conflict checking and advanced filtering.
Communication - Bulk email tools to help your administrators send reminders and responses. Use form letters, a message center, and much more!
Management - Search tools, duplicate people management, editing tools, submission transfers, many tools to manage a variety of conference management headaches!
Click here for more information.

first   previous   Page 10 of 31   next   last

©2012 All Academic, Inc.