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Sex Differences in Self-Employment Participation in the United States, 1940-1990

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Abstract:

Despite the revitalization of non-agricultural self-employment since 1970, little research has examined sex differences in self-employment participation over time. Using Census data from 1940 to 1990, I examine sex differences in self-employment trends. These trends include the changing sex composition of the regular work force and self-employed workers, women’s and men’s changing participation in self-employment, and the changing age structure of the self-employed and how it varies by sex. I also examine trends in occupational and industrial sex segregation in wage employment and in self-employment. I discuss the typical occupations and industries of self-employed women and men and how they have shifted over time. I investigate trends in human capital and labor supply, and how these have varied by sex across time in regular employment and self-employment. Human capital and labor supply measures include education, weeks worked per year, and hours worked per week. Finally, I examine the marital and parental status of self-employed and regularly employed women and men over time. Importantly, labor supply variables are examined by parental and marital status, and by professional and non-professional occupations. Examining the labor supply of parents and non-parents by professional status allows me to uncover two groups of women with rising self-employment participation: mothers in part-time non-professional jobs and full-time professional women with few to no children. I identify these groups as “mother-workers” – women whose family responsibilities conflict with work obligations – and “glass ceiling breakers” – highly skilled women who may be trying to circumvent employer discrimination.

Most Common Document Word Stems:

self (255), employ (255), self-employ (238), women (219), work (146), men (102), time (87), regular (81), profession (76), job (65), mother (62), 1990 (62), hour (55), part (43), occup (42), like (41), industri (38), part-tim (37), famili (37), worker (34), tabl (33),

Author's Keywords:

self-employment, sex differences
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Association:
Name: American Sociological Association
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http://www.asanet.org


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MLA Citation:

Budig, Michelle. "Sex Differences in Self-Employment Participation in the United States, 1940-1990" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Atlanta Hilton Hotel, Atlanta, GA, Aug 16, 2003 <Not Available>. 2009-05-26 <http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p106534_index.html>

APA Citation:

Budig, M. J. , 2003-08-16 "Sex Differences in Self-Employment Participation in the United States, 1940-1990" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Atlanta Hilton Hotel, Atlanta, GA Online <.PDF>. 2009-05-26 from http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p106534_index.html

Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Despite the revitalization of non-agricultural self-employment since 1970, little research has examined sex differences in self-employment participation over time. Using Census data from 1940 to 1990, I examine sex differences in self-employment trends. These trends include the changing sex composition of the regular work force and self-employed workers, women’s and men’s changing participation in self-employment, and the changing age structure of the self-employed and how it varies by sex. I also examine trends in occupational and industrial sex segregation in wage employment and in self-employment. I discuss the typical occupations and industries of self-employed women and men and how they have shifted over time. I investigate trends in human capital and labor supply, and how these have varied by sex across time in regular employment and self-employment. Human capital and labor supply measures include education, weeks worked per year, and hours worked per week. Finally, I examine the marital and parental status of self-employed and regularly employed women and men over time. Importantly, labor supply variables are examined by parental and marital status, and by professional and non-professional occupations. Examining the labor supply of parents and non-parents by professional status allows me to uncover two groups of women with rising self-employment participation: mothers in part-time non-professional jobs and full-time professional women with few to no children. I identify these groups as “mother-workers” – women whose family responsibilities conflict with work obligations – and “glass ceiling breakers” – highly skilled women who may be trying to circumvent employer discrimination.

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Document Type: .PDF
Page count: 19
Word count: 8568
Text sample:
After a long decline non-agricultural self-employment has experienced a renaissance since the 1970s in the Western industrialized world (Hughes 1999; McManus 2001; Steinmetz and Wright 1989). Women's participation in self-employment has risen dramatically and at a pace that outstrips their increasing participation in the regular employment labor market (Blau 1998; McManus 2001). Although many policy makers and researchers view this growth in self-employment as not only good for the economy but as a marker of women's progress toward economic
Ann Helton Stromberg and Shirley Harkness eds. Mountain View CA: Mayfield Publishing Co. Reskin Barbara and Patricia Roos. 1990. Job Queues Gender Queues: Explaining Women’s Inroads into Male Occupations. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. Ruggles Steven and Matthew Sobek. 1997. Integrated Public Use Microdata Series: Version 2.0. Minneapolis MN: Historical Census Projects University of Minnesota Steinmetz George and Erik Olin Wright. 1989. "The Fall and Rise of the Petty Bourgeoisie: Changing Patterns of Self-Employment in the Postwar United States." American


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