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Weekly Time Use in Middle Class, Two Parent Families with Children: How Gender Egalitarian Is It?

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Abstract:

In this paper we describe average gender differences in middle-class, dual-earner parents' allocation of time to market work (“the first shift”) and, housework, childcare, and obtaining household goods and services (“the second shift”). We use the first ever seven-day U.S. diary completed by both spouses. Since the intensity and necessity of different activities differ over the course of a week, this allows a direct comparison of a person's work activities with those of their spouse in a way not available from previous daily diary studies. We find that total productive time, defined as the sum of paid and unpaid work (housework, childcare, shopping), is close to equal for mothers and fathers. The second shift falls disproportionately on mothers, but the first shift consumes more of fathers’ than mothers’ time. Hence, total weekly workloads of mothers and fathers are quite long and very similar. The one group with a shorter workweek is mothers employed part-time, compared with mothers employed full-time and fathers. We discuss the complexity in assessing “the second shift.”

Author's Keywords:

time use, parents, middle class, gender gap, paid work, unpaid work, childcare, egalitarian
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Association:
Name: American Sociological Association
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http://www.asanet.org


Citation:
URL: http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p106956_index.html
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MLA Citation:

Daczo, Zsuzsa. and Bianchi, Suzanne. "Weekly Time Use in Middle Class, Two Parent Families with Children: How Gender Egalitarian Is It?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Atlanta Hilton Hotel, Atlanta, GA, Aug 16, 2003 <Not Available>. 2009-05-26 <http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p106956_index.html>

APA Citation:

Daczo, Z. and Bianchi, S. M. , 2003-08-16 "Weekly Time Use in Middle Class, Two Parent Families with Children: How Gender Egalitarian Is It?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Atlanta Hilton Hotel, Atlanta, GA <Not Available>. 2009-05-26 from http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p106956_index.html

Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: In this paper we describe average gender differences in middle-class, dual-earner parents' allocation of time to market work (“the first shift”) and, housework, childcare, and obtaining household goods and services (“the second shift”). We use the first ever seven-day U.S. diary completed by both spouses. Since the intensity and necessity of different activities differ over the course of a week, this allows a direct comparison of a person's work activities with those of their spouse in a way not available from previous daily diary studies. We find that total productive time, defined as the sum of paid and unpaid work (housework, childcare, shopping), is close to equal for mothers and fathers. The second shift falls disproportionately on mothers, but the first shift consumes more of fathers’ than mothers’ time. Hence, total weekly workloads of mothers and fathers are quite long and very similar. The one group with a shorter workweek is mothers employed part-time, compared with mothers employed full-time and fathers. We discuss the complexity in assessing “the second shift.”

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