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Family Background and Education: China In Comparative Perspective
Unformatted Document Text:  26 [Appendix Eq. A1] Adjusted R Square .92381 Standard Error 1084.94623 Variable B SE B Beta T Sig T YR1900 45.033709 7.393652 .078032 6.091 .0000 K84NAT$ 2.267823 .180644 .430355 12.554 .0000 K38NOAG 74.526063 3.189440 .376291 23.367 .0000 K49CAR 800.175208 115.171106 .208561 6.948 .0000 (Constant) -3588.526698 498.833834 -7.194 .0000 N = 617 In addition, we calculate a nation-specific adjustment, in effect a dummy variable for each nation in the equation. 13 We then use predicted values from this equation to estimate GDP in each nation-year where Penn World Table data are not available but Banks data are available. These are mostly in the period 1920-1949. However, these three Banks variables are not available for all nations and years for which we would like to use them. For those years we use one of several reduced models. These are (in order of preference): [Appendix Eq. A2] Adjusted R Square .91793 Standard Error 1126.00151 Variable B SE B Beta T Sig T YR1900 40.830386 7.647702 .070749 5.339 .0000 K84NAT$ 3.343123 .096683 .634410 34.578 .0000 K38NOAG 72.489619 3.296123 .366009 21.992 .0000 (Constant) -3432.757433 517.186955 -6.637 .0000 and: [Appendix Eq. A3] Adjusted R Square .91467 Standard Error 1150.01894 Variable B SE B Beta T Sig T YR1900 45.178285 7.869925 .078679 5.741 .0000 K19GREV 2.587354 .332184 .166798 7.789 .0000 K38NOAG 82.363098 3.271307 .409422 25.177 .0000 K49CAR 1750.614541 74.135355 .458010 23.614 .0000 (Constant) -3562.421958 541.096393 -6.584 .0000 n=646 For a number of nations and years, especially in 1920-1928, data are still lacking. These we filled in by various ad hoc estimates, mostly by projecting backwards from later reliable estimates, assuming a 1% growth rate in the intervening period. Banks data are not available for the World War II period, generally 1939-1945, so we interpolated from available pre- and post-war GDP estimates. Eastern Europe Estimates for Eastern Europe in the Communist period are not generally available in the Penn World Table; however, data are generally available for 1990 or 1991 onwards, after the fall of Communism. Hungarian estimates are available in the Penn World Table for 1970 on (together with estimates for 1961- 13 We also tested for an interaction between national income per capita and time, but found it too small to be worth worrying about (t = -2.21, p = .03). Electricity consumption per capita (K130ELE3 ) had no statistically significant effect in this or subsequent models, and so is omitted.

Authors: Kelley, Jonathan., Evans, Mariah. and Yang, Juhua.
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[Appendix Eq. A1]
Adjusted R Square .92381
Standard Error 1084.94623
Variable B SE B Beta T Sig T
YR1900 45.033709 7.393652 .078032 6.091 .0000
K84NAT$ 2.267823 .180644 .430355 12.554 .0000
K38NOAG 74.526063 3.189440 .376291 23.367 .0000
K49CAR 800.175208 115.171106 .208561 6.948 .0000
(Constant) -3588.526698 498.833834 -7.194 .0000
N = 617
In addition, we calculate a nation-specific adjustment, in effect a dummy
variable for each nation in the equation.
13
We then use predicted values from
this equation to estimate GDP in each nation-year where Penn World Table data
are not available but Banks data are available. These are mostly in the period
1920-1949.
However, these three Banks variables are not available for all nations and years
for which we would like to use them. For those years we use one of several
reduced models. These are (in order of preference):
[Appendix Eq. A2]
Adjusted R Square .91793
Standard Error 1126.00151
Variable B SE B Beta T Sig T
YR1900 40.830386 7.647702 .070749 5.339 .0000
K84NAT$ 3.343123 .096683 .634410 34.578 .0000
K38NOAG 72.489619 3.296123 .366009 21.992 .0000
(Constant) -3432.757433 517.186955 -6.637 .0000
and:
[Appendix Eq. A3]
Adjusted R Square .91467
Standard Error 1150.01894
Variable B SE B Beta T Sig T
YR1900 45.178285 7.869925 .078679 5.741 .0000
K19GREV 2.587354 .332184 .166798 7.789 .0000
K38NOAG 82.363098 3.271307 .409422 25.177 .0000
K49CAR 1750.614541 74.135355 .458010 23.614 .0000
(Constant) -3562.421958 541.096393 -6.584 .0000
n=646
For a number of nations and years, especially in 1920-1928, data are still
lacking. These we filled in by various ad hoc estimates, mostly by projecting
backwards from later reliable estimates, assuming a 1% growth rate in the
intervening period. Banks data are not available for the World War II period,
generally 1939-1945, so we interpolated from available pre- and post-war GDP
estimates.
Eastern Europe
Estimates for Eastern Europe in the Communist period are not generally
available in the Penn World Table; however, data are generally available for
1990 or 1991 onwards, after the fall of Communism. Hungarian estimates are
available in the Penn World Table for 1970 on (together with estimates for 1961-
13
We also tested for an interaction between national income per capita and time, but found it too small to be
worth worrying about (t = -2.21, p = .03). Electricity consumption per capita (K130ELE3 ) had no
statistically significant effect in this or subsequent models, and so is omitted.


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