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Robots as New Media: A Cross-Cultural Examination of Social and Cognitive Responses to Robotic and On-Screen Agents
Unformatted Document Text:  11 difference in recognition score appears to be a function of both Source Credibility and Surveillance. A further correlation analysis showed a significant positive correlation between Source credibility and Recognition memory, r=.26, p<.05. US participants who perceived the agent as being more credible remembered more information from the interaction. A correlation matrix between the dependent variables also yielded a significant negative correlation, r=-.29, p<.05. When combined together, the multiple correlation coefficient of Source Credibility and Surveillance in predicting memory was R=.39, p<.005. 17.5 18 18.5 19 19.5 20 20.5 US participants Japanese participants 2D on-screen agent 3D robot agent Figure 6. Recognition memory by Embodiment and Nationality Discussion These results show that the embodiment of an agent character should be carefully selected granting consideration also in which the agent is going to be introduced. The self-report valence scale reveals that the 3D robot agent was better liked among US users than its 2D on-screen counterpart, while the opposite was true for Japanese users. The fact that nationality had significant effects on both arousal and dominance evaluations supports the idea that emotional responses vary widely based on cultural background. An intriguing result involves the concept of “Surveillance.” We expected that 3D robots would make users feel more like they were being watched than 2D on-screen counterparts, but the data show that it was not the case with US users (the difference in surveillance rating across 2D and 3D condition was not statistically significant for Japanese users). It may be that an agent untethered to a computer is trusted more than a computer agent that has the familiar recording capabilities tied to a machine. This would include prominently the ability of a computer to store and disseminate personal information. Although not statistically significant, both US and Japanese users rated the 3D robot agent more highly in terms of source credibility than 2D on-screen agent. However, US users perceived the agent substantially more credible than Japanese users, and it

Authors: Shinozawa, Kazuhiko., Reeves, Byron., Wise, Kevin., Lim, Sohye., Maldonado, Heidy. and Naya, Futoshi.
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11
difference in recognition score appears to be a function of both Source Credibility and
Surveillance. A further correlation analysis showed a significant positive correlation
between Source credibility and Recognition memory, r=.26, p<.05. US participants who
perceived the agent as being more credible remembered more information from the
interaction. A correlation matrix between the dependent variables also yielded a
significant negative correlation, r=-.29, p<.05. When combined together, the multiple
correlation coefficient of Source Credibility and Surveillance in predicting memory was
R=.39, p<.005.
17.5
18
18.5
19
19.5
20
20.5
US participants
Japanese participants
2D on-screen agent
3D robot agent
Figure 6. Recognition memory by Embodiment and Nationality
Discussion
These results show that the embodiment of an agent character should be carefully
selected granting consideration also in which the agent is going to be introduced. The
self-report valence scale reveals that the 3D robot agent was better liked among US users
than its 2D on-screen counterpart, while the opposite was true for Japanese users. The
fact that nationality had significant effects on both arousal and dominance evaluations
supports the idea that emotional responses vary widely based on cultural background.

An intriguing result involves the concept of “Surveillance.” We expected that 3D
robots would make users feel more like they were being watched than 2D on-screen
counterparts, but the data show that it was not the case with US users (the difference in
surveillance rating across 2D and 3D condition was not statistically significant for
Japanese users). It may be that an agent untethered to a computer is trusted more than a
computer agent that has the familiar recording capabilities tied to a machine. This would
include prominently the ability of a computer to store and disseminate personal
information.

Although not statistically significant, both US and Japanese users rated the 3D
robot agent more highly in terms of source credibility than 2D on-screen agent. However,
US users perceived the agent substantially more credible than Japanese users, and it


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