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Robots as New Media: A Cross-Cultural Examination of Social and Cognitive Responses to Robotic and On-Screen Agents
Unformatted Document Text:  6 Figure 1 Two-Dimensional Embodiment Three-Dimensional Embodiment (On-Screen Agent) (Robot) The Scenario factor consisted of three different contexts for interaction. In the Retail Sales condition, the robot wore a clerk’s outfit and asked the participant a series of questions pertaining to the purchase of a set of kitchen knives. In the Reading Survey condition, the robot was outfitted in a coat and tie and asked questions dealing with the participant’s reading preferences. In the Nutrition and Health condition, the robot was outfitted with a doctor’s lab coat and asked questions about basic nutrition. The order of presentation was randomized to balance order effects. Figure 2 shows the robot in each of the three roles. Figure 2. Robot’s Three Social Roles: Retail Sales, Reading Survey, Nutrition and Health. Stimulus Material The robot was developed by NTT Cyber Space Laboratories, and modified by the NTT Communication Science Laboratories. The robot’s voice in the U.S. portion of the experiment was a web-based text-to-speech (TTS) synthesizer developed by Rhetorical Systems. The Japanese voice was created with a different TTS synthesizer, so there were noticeable differences between the voices across different tonal qualitites. A different voice was used for each of the three scenarios. The voice used in the Commerce and

Authors: Shinozawa, Kazuhiko., Reeves, Byron., Wise, Kevin., Lim, Sohye., Maldonado, Heidy. and Naya, Futoshi.
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6
Figure 1
Two-Dimensional Embodiment Three-Dimensional Embodiment
(On-Screen Agent) (Robot)

The Scenario factor consisted of three different contexts for interaction. In the
Retail Sales condition, the robot wore a clerk’s outfit and asked the participant a series of
questions pertaining to the purchase of a set of kitchen knives. In the Reading Survey
condition, the robot was outfitted in a coat and tie and asked questions dealing with the
participant’s reading preferences. In the Nutrition and Health condition, the robot was
outfitted with a doctor’s lab coat and asked questions about basic nutrition. The order of
presentation was randomized to balance order effects. Figure 2 shows the robot in each
of the three roles.
Figure 2. Robot’s Three Social Roles:
Retail Sales, Reading Survey, Nutrition and Health.
Stimulus Material

The robot was developed by NTT Cyber Space Laboratories, and modified by the
NTT Communication Science Laboratories. The robot’s voice in the U.S. portion of the
experiment was a web-based text-to-speech (TTS) synthesizer developed by Rhetorical
Systems. The Japanese voice was created with a different TTS synthesizer, so there were
noticeable differences between the voices across different tonal qualitites. A different
voice was used for each of the three scenarios. The voice used in the Commerce and


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