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Robots as New Media: A Cross-Cultural Examination of Social and Cognitive Responses to Robotic and On-Screen Agents
Unformatted Document Text:  7 Education scenarios were male, and the voice used in the Health condition was female. The 2D condition used a live video feed of the robot shot in an adjacent soundproof room. Procedure Upon arriving at the lab, participants read and signed an informed consent statement. The experimenter then attached two electrodes to the palm of the participant’s non-dominant hand for the collection of physiological data. On the experimenter’s command, the participant pressed the “Enter” button on the button box to begin the scenario. The robot began the scenario with a short introduction and then began to ask questions. Each scenario consisted of nine questions, and each question had two possible responses. When presenting each question, the robot made a statement endorsing one of the two possible responses. When the robot had finished asking the question and presenting the two choices, these choices appeared on the button box display. The participant indicated his/her choice by pressing the corresponding button, and then pressed the “Enter” button to send the selection to the computer. If the participant’s choice matched the robot’s suggestion, the robot raised its arms and nodded with approval while responding with a positive statement. If the participant’s choice did not match the robot’s suggestion, the robot bowed and shook its head slowly while responding with a negative statement. This continued until all questions were answered. At the completion of each interaction, the experimenter gave the participant a questionnaire. As the participant completed the questionnaire, the experimenter changed the robot’s costume in another room. The experimenter then returned the newly outfitted robot and began the next scenario. This entire process was repeated for all three scenarios. When the participant had completed the final questionnaire, the experimenter removed the electrodes, and administered the recognition test. Upon completion of this test, participants were debriefed and dismissed. Dependent Measures Liking/SAM Liking was measured using two different self report instruments. A 12-item questionnaire was adopted from Rickenberg and Reeves (2000) and slightly modified for this study. Participants were instructed to report their degree of agreement with each statement on a ten-point Likert scale. A factor analysis was conducted to determine the underlying clusters of items that contributed to the variance found among participants’ responses.

Authors: Shinozawa, Kazuhiko., Reeves, Byron., Wise, Kevin., Lim, Sohye., Maldonado, Heidy. and Naya, Futoshi.
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7
Education scenarios were male, and the voice used in the Health condition was female.
The 2D condition used a live video feed of the robot shot in an adjacent soundproof
room.
Procedure
Upon arriving at the lab, participants read and signed an informed consent
statement. The experimenter then attached two electrodes to the palm of the participant’s
non-dominant hand for the collection of physiological data. On the experimenter’s
command, the participant pressed the “Enter” button on the button box to begin the
scenario.

The robot began the scenario with a short introduction and then began to ask
questions. Each scenario consisted of nine questions, and each question had two possible
responses. When presenting each question, the robot made a statement endorsing one of
the two possible responses. When the robot had finished asking the question and
presenting the two choices, these choices appeared on the button box display. The
participant indicated his/her choice by pressing the corresponding button, and then
pressed the “Enter” button to send the selection to the computer.

If the participant’s choice matched the robot’s suggestion, the robot raised its
arms and nodded with approval while responding with a positive statement. If the
participant’s choice did not match the robot’s suggestion, the robot bowed and shook its
head slowly while responding with a negative statement. This continued until all
questions were answered.

At the completion of each interaction, the experimenter gave the participant a
questionnaire. As the participant completed the questionnaire, the experimenter changed
the robot’s costume in another room. The experimenter then returned the newly outfitted
robot and began the next scenario. This entire process was repeated for all three
scenarios.

When the participant had completed the final questionnaire, the experimenter
removed the electrodes, and administered the recognition test. Upon completion of this
test, participants were debriefed and dismissed.
Dependent Measures
Liking/SAM
Liking was measured using two different self report instruments. A 12-item
questionnaire was adopted from Rickenberg and Reeves (2000) and slightly modified for
this study. Participants were instructed to report their degree of agreement with each
statement on a ten-point Likert scale. A factor analysis was conducted to determine the
underlying clusters of items that contributed to the variance found among participants’
responses.


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