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Robots as New Media: A Cross-Cultural Examination of Social and Cognitive Responses to Robotic and On-Screen Agents
Unformatted Document Text:  8 Self-report responses were also measured using SAM, the Self-Assessment Manikin. SAM uses pictographic forms, and has been shown to be a reliable instrument for assessing emotional responses (Bradley & Lang, 1994). Credibility Credibility was assessed using McCroskey’s (1974) source credibility scale. This instrument is a 15-item semantic differential that measures credibility across 5 dimensions: Sociability, Extroversion, Competence, Composure, and Character. This instrument has been used numerous times in previous research and has been shown to have both face and construct validity. We computed indices for each of the dimensions mentioned above, as well as an overall index of credibility based on all 5 dimensions. Recognition Memory Recognition memory was evaluated using a 24-item forced choice recognition test. Each item asked the participant to determine whether the robot did or did not make a statement during the scenarios. There were 8 statements for each scenario, 4 that did occur and 4 foils that did not occur. RESULTS Emotional Responses Factorial analyses of variance (ANOVA) were conducted for each of the three SAM scales. Significant interaction effects between Nationality and Embodiment were found in Valence (F(1,68)=3. 89, p <.05) (See Figure 3). The interaction reflects the fact that US participants rated the 3D Embodiment considerably higher (M=6.41, s.d.=.28) than the 2D Embodiment (M=5.57, s.d.=.27), while Japanese rated the 2D Embodiment more highly (M=5.94, s.d.=.27) than 3D (M=5.69, s.d.=.27). Results also showed a main effect of Nationality on both SAM arousal (F (1,68)=5.84, p<.05) and SAM dominance (F(1,68)=6.15, p<.05). US participants self-reported greater emotional arousal level (M=4.01, s.d.=.20) than Japanese participants (M=3.32, s.d.=.20), whereas Japanese participants reported higher ratings on the dominance scale (M=5.11, s.d.=.18) than US participants (M=4.49, s.d.=.18).

Authors: Shinozawa, Kazuhiko., Reeves, Byron., Wise, Kevin., Lim, Sohye., Maldonado, Heidy. and Naya, Futoshi.
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8
Self-report responses were also measured using SAM, the Self-Assessment
Manikin. SAM uses pictographic forms, and has been shown to be a reliable instrument
for assessing emotional responses (Bradley & Lang, 1994).
Credibility

Credibility was assessed using McCroskey’s (1974) source credibility scale. This
instrument is a 15-item semantic differential that measures credibility across 5
dimensions: Sociability, Extroversion, Competence, Composure, and Character. This
instrument has been used numerous times in previous research and has been shown to
have both face and construct validity. We computed indices for each of the dimensions
mentioned above, as well as an overall index of credibility based on all 5 dimensions.
Recognition Memory

Recognition memory was evaluated using a 24-item forced choice recognition
test. Each item asked the participant to determine whether the robot did or did not make
a statement during the scenarios. There were 8 statements for each scenario, 4 that did
occur and 4 foils that did not occur.
RESULTS
Emotional Responses
Factorial analyses of variance (ANOVA) were conducted for each of the three
SAM scales. Significant interaction effects between Nationality and Embodiment were
found in Valence (F(1,68)=3. 89, p <.05) (See Figure 3). The interaction reflects the fact
that US participants rated the 3D Embodiment considerably higher (M=6.41, s.d.=.28)
than the 2D Embodiment (M=5.57, s.d.=.27), while Japanese rated the 2D Embodiment
more highly (M=5.94, s.d.=.27) than 3D (M=5.69, s.d.=.27).

Results also showed a main effect of Nationality on both SAM arousal (F
(1,68)=5.84, p<.05) and SAM dominance (F(1,68)=6.15, p<.05). US participants self-
reported greater emotional arousal level (M=4.01, s.d.=.20) than Japanese participants
(M=3.32, s.d.=.20), whereas Japanese participants reported higher ratings on the
dominance scale (M=5.11, s.d.=.18) than US participants (M=4.49, s.d.=.18).


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