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Robots as New Media: A Cross-Cultural Examination of Social and Cognitive Responses to Robotic and On-Screen Agents
Unformatted Document Text:  9 5 5.2 5.4 5.6 5.8 6 6.2 6.4 6.6 US participants Japanese participants 2D on-screen agent 3D robot agent Figure 3. Valence rating by Embodiment and Nationality Liking Two different self-report instruments were used to evaluate participants’ emotional responses to the robot and on-screen agent. For the 11-item questionnaire, a factor analysis with varimax rotation was conducted to determine the common underlying item clusters. Three factors emerged which accounted for 64.97% of the variance between individual items. The first factor, “Enjoyment” (Eigenvalue=3.26), consisted of five items related to the overall enjoyment of the experience (“enjoyed talking with the character,” “enjoyed working with the character,” “felt like the character and I were a team,” “the character was in the way” [negative loading], and “wanted to stop the interaction” [negative loading]). The second factor, “Surveillance” (Eigenvalue=2.50), consisted of four items relating to how much attention each character seemed to be paying to the participants’ actions (“seemed to be watching me,” “seemed to make judgements about me,” “seemed to offer options based on my choices,” and “seemed to be recording my answers.”). The third factor (Eigenvalue=1.39) consisted of the two remaining items (“character seemed condescending,” and “character seemed fairly active”). Because there was no intuitive connection between these items, this factor was dropped from further analysis. A multivariate ANOVA revealed a significant interaction effect between Embodiment and Nationality on Surveillance (F(1,68)=10.80, p <.005) (See Figure 4). US participants rated the 2D Embodiment (M=19.64, s.d.=.96) as exhibiting greater Surveillance than the 3D Embodiment (M=15.14, s.d.=.96). On the other hand, Japanese participants perceived greater surveillance from the 3D Embodiment (M=18.34, s.d.=.96) than the 2D Embodiment (M=15.14, s.d.=.96).

Authors: Shinozawa, Kazuhiko., Reeves, Byron., Wise, Kevin., Lim, Sohye., Maldonado, Heidy. and Naya, Futoshi.
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background image
9
5
5.2
5.4
5.6
5.8
6
6.2
6.4
6.6
US participants
Japanese participants
2D on-screen agent
3D robot agent
Figure 3. Valence rating by Embodiment and Nationality
Liking
Two different self-report instruments were used to evaluate participants’
emotional responses to the robot and on-screen agent. For the 11-item questionnaire, a
factor analysis with varimax rotation was conducted to determine the common underlying
item clusters. Three factors emerged which accounted for 64.97% of the variance
between individual items. The first factor, “Enjoyment” (Eigenvalue=3.26), consisted of
five items related to the overall enjoyment of the experience (“enjoyed talking with the
character,” “enjoyed working with the character,” “felt like the character and I were a
team,” “the character was in the way” [negative loading], and “wanted to stop the
interaction” [negative loading]).
The second factor, “Surveillance” (Eigenvalue=2.50), consisted of four items
relating to how much attention each character seemed to be paying to the participants’
actions (“seemed to be watching me,” “seemed to make judgements about me,” “seemed
to offer options based on my choices,” and “seemed to be recording my answers.”). The
third factor (Eigenvalue=1.39) consisted of the two remaining items (“character seemed
condescending,” and “character seemed fairly active”). Because there was no intuitive
connection between these items, this factor was dropped from further analysis.

A multivariate ANOVA revealed a significant interaction effect between
Embodiment and Nationality on Surveillance (F(1,68)=10.80, p <.005) (See Figure 4).
US participants rated the 2D Embodiment (M=19.64, s.d.=.96) as exhibiting greater
Surveillance than the 3D Embodiment (M=15.14, s.d.=.96). On the other hand, Japanese
participants perceived greater surveillance from the 3D Embodiment (M=18.34, s.d.=.96)
than the 2D Embodiment (M=15.14, s.d.=.96).


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