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Gender Patterns and Smoking Susceptibility among Adolescents Who View Actors Smoking
Unformatted Document Text:  Actors and smoking susceptibility, p. 15 of a study could be considered unethical (Pechmann & Shih, 1999). Therefore, the measure of exposure, while less ideal than a directly observed measure, is comparable to measures from previous studies and one that avoids potential negative effects associated with conducting research related to exposure to depictions of smoking. Predicted Variable Building on procedures from prior studies, risk factors were computed indicating peer and family smoking behaviors. Specifically, the degree of risk associated with family and peer behaviors was operationalized in terms of whether sample adolescents indicated that only household members, only friends, or both household members and friends smoked. The youth were coded at risk if they owned and were willing to wear tobacco company promotional merchandise. Media-related risks were computed indicating if the sample adolescents claimed that they regularly saw actors smoke 1) on television or 2) the movies. Adolescents were coded at higher risks if the reported regularly seeing actors smoke in television and in the movies. Following procedures from prior studies, the respondents who had never used tobacco were coded as susceptible to smoking based on multiple indicators. Never-smokers were coded as susceptible if they (a) indicated any inclination to smoke during the next year, (b) reported that they would try a cigarette soon, and (c) admitted any willingness to smoke a cigarette if a friend offered it. The combination of the three criteria resulted in a conservative estimate of susceptibility. Statistical Analyses The following analysis focused on the 2,507 high school students who claimed that they had never smoked a cigarette, even a puff or two. Following traditional

Authors: Arpan, Laura., Heald, Gary. and Visser, Muriel.
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Actors and smoking susceptibility, p. 15
of a study could be considered unethical (Pechmann & Shih, 1999). Therefore, the
measure of exposure, while less ideal than a directly observed measure, is comparable to
measures from previous studies and one that avoids potential negative effects associated
with conducting research related to exposure to depictions of smoking.
Predicted Variable
Building on procedures from prior studies, risk factors were computed indicating
peer and family smoking behaviors. Specifically, the degree of risk associated with
family and peer behaviors was operationalized in terms of whether sample adolescents
indicated that only household members, only friends, or both household members and
friends smoked. The youth were coded at risk if they owned and were willing to wear
tobacco company promotional merchandise. Media-related risks were computed
indicating if the sample adolescents claimed that they regularly saw actors smoke 1) on
television or 2) the movies. Adolescents were coded at higher risks if the reported
regularly seeing actors smoke in television and in the movies. Following procedures
from prior studies, the respondents who had never used tobacco were coded as
susceptible to smoking based on multiple indicators. Never-smokers were coded as
susceptible if they (a) indicated any inclination to smoke during the next year, (b)
reported that they would try a cigarette soon, and (c) admitted any willingness to smoke a
cigarette if a friend offered it. The combination of the three criteria resulted in a
conservative estimate of susceptibility.
Statistical Analyses
The following analysis focused on the 2,507 high school students who claimed
that they had never smoked a cigarette, even a puff or two. Following traditional


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