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Gender Patterns and Smoking Susceptibility among Adolescents Who View Actors Smoking
Unformatted Document Text:  Actors and smoking susceptibility, p. 9 smoking to which they are regularly exposed do not show negative consequences for smoking behavior (Bandura, 2002), as is most often the case in movies (Tickle, 2001). In sum, adolescents who see smoking portrayed among mass media as a common, attractive, and socially acceptable activity should expect smoking to be associated with the same outcomes in their everyday lives and should, therefore, be more motivated, or less inhibited, to begin smoking. Gender Patterns in Effects of Exposure to Pro-smoking Messages A variety of gender-related differences are evident from the literature on smoking. As was indicated above, evidence from the U.S. suggests that smoking rates are increasing among women. At the same time, however, some scholars have found that girls might be less likely to be susceptible to using tobacco (Altman et al., 1996). There is also recent evidence that girls are less susceptible than boys to promotional items used to market tobacco (Heald et al., 2001). There may, however, be certain processes by which girls become more susceptible than boys. The process of idolization provides a key example. Raviv et al. (1996) identified girls as being more likely to idolize singers than boys since girls are more susceptible to group pressure than boys, and because worshiping and modeling corresponds more closely to girls’ than to boys’ sex roles. Additionally, Botvin et al. (1992) found that the more girls perceived that people their age smoked, the more likely they were to become smokers. This pattern did not hold true for boys. Piko (2001) similarly found that, among girls and younger adolescents, the relationship between an antismoking attitude (stated intention to remain a non-smoker) and eventual smoking uptake was moderated by the number of smoking friends. However, the number of friends did not moderate the relationship among boys. These

Authors: Arpan, Laura., Heald, Gary. and Visser, Muriel.
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Actors and smoking susceptibility, p. 9
smoking to which they are regularly exposed do not show negative consequences for
smoking behavior (Bandura, 2002), as is most often the case in movies (Tickle, 2001).
In sum, adolescents who see smoking portrayed among mass media as a common,
attractive, and socially acceptable activity should expect smoking to be associated with
the same outcomes in their everyday lives and should, therefore, be more motivated, or
less inhibited, to begin smoking.
Gender Patterns in Effects of Exposure to Pro-smoking Messages
A variety of gender-related differences are evident from the literature on smoking.
As was indicated above, evidence from the U.S. suggests that smoking rates are
increasing among women. At the same time, however, some scholars have found that
girls might be less likely to be susceptible to using tobacco (Altman et al., 1996). There is
also recent evidence that girls are less susceptible than boys to promotional items used to
market tobacco (Heald et al., 2001). There may, however, be certain processes by which
girls become more susceptible than boys. The process of idolization provides a key
example. Raviv et al. (1996) identified girls as being more likely to idolize singers than
boys since girls are more susceptible to group pressure than boys, and because
worshiping and modeling corresponds more closely to girls’ than to boys’ sex roles.
Additionally, Botvin et al. (1992) found that the more girls perceived that people
their age smoked, the more likely they were to become smokers. This pattern did not hold
true for boys. Piko (2001) similarly found that, among girls and younger adolescents, the
relationship between an antismoking attitude (stated intention to remain a non-smoker)
and eventual smoking uptake was moderated by the number of smoking friends.
However, the number of friends did not moderate the relationship among boys. These


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