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Hispanic Women's Preferences for Breast Health Information: Subjective Cultural Influences on Source, Message, and Channel
Unformatted Document Text:  Breast Cancer Communication Preferences 11 income, marital status, and preferred language) are displayed in Table 1. The majority of women completed the questionnaire in English (n = 117) with 15 completing it in Spanish. Instrument Independent Variables. The independent variables were self-construal, ethnic identity, and cultural health beliefs. We measured self-construal with 18 items from a previously validated 29-item instrument of self-construal (Gudykunst et al., 1996). Nine items measured independent self-construal and nine items measured interdependent self-construal. The scales have been found to be reliable with Cronbach alphas ranging from .73 to .85 across four cultures (Gudykunst et al., 1996). Ethnic identity was measured with 16 items from Ting-Toomey et al.’s (2000) measure. The items include four each for the following scales: belonging, fringe, intergroup interaction, and assimilate. The four factors represent traditional, marginal, bicultural, and assimilation in Berry et al.’s (1989) typology respectively. The measure was developed in a study of ethnic identity and conflict styles in four U.S. ethnic groups (African, Asian, European, and Hispanic Americans). Cronbach alphas ranged from .76 to .90 (Ting-Toomey et al., 2000). Cultural health beliefs were measured with eight items from Murguía et al.’s (2000) Cultural Health Attributions Questionnaire. Four items measured equity attributions and four items measured behavioral-environmental. Murguía et al. reported the Cronbach alphas as .92 for equity attributions and .77 for behavior-environmental. Dependent Variables. The dependent variables included source, message, and channel preferences for the receipt of breast health communication (Marshall et al., 1995). There was not an existing measure of these variables; thus we created a measure using a two step-process. First, as part of another study on this topic, 25 Hispanic women in four focus groups were asked about their preferences for receiving information on breast health. Specifically, we asked them “How do you

Authors: DeVargas, Felicia., Sanchez, Christina. and Oetzel, John.
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Breast Cancer Communication Preferences
11
income, marital status, and preferred language) are displayed in Table 1. The majority of women
completed the questionnaire in English (n = 117) with 15 completing it in Spanish.
Instrument
Independent Variables. The independent variables were self-construal, ethnic identity, and
cultural health beliefs. We measured self-construal with 18 items from a previously validated 29-item
instrument of self-construal (Gudykunst et al., 1996). Nine items measured independent self-construal
and nine items measured interdependent self-construal. The scales have been found to be reliable with
Cronbach alphas ranging from .73 to .85 across four cultures (Gudykunst et al., 1996).
Ethnic identity was measured with 16 items from Ting-Toomey et al.’s (2000) measure. The
items include four each for the following scales: belonging, fringe, intergroup interaction, and
assimilate. The four factors represent traditional, marginal, bicultural, and assimilation in Berry et al.’s
(1989) typology respectively. The measure was developed in a study of ethnic identity and conflict
styles in four U.S. ethnic groups (African, Asian, European, and Hispanic Americans). Cronbach
alphas ranged from .76 to .90 (Ting-Toomey et al., 2000).
Cultural health beliefs were measured with eight items from Murguía et al.’s (2000) Cultural
Health Attributions Questionnaire. Four items measured equity attributions and four items measured
behavioral-environmental. Murguía et al. reported the Cronbach alphas as .92 for equity attributions
and .77 for behavior-environmental.
Dependent Variables. The dependent variables included source, message, and channel
preferences for the receipt of breast health communication (Marshall et al., 1995). There was not an
existing measure of these variables; thus we created a measure using a two step-process. First, as part
of another study on this topic, 25 Hispanic women in four focus groups were asked about their
preferences for receiving information on breast health. Specifically, we asked them “How do you


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