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Hispanic Women's Preferences for Breast Health Information: Subjective Cultural Influences on Source, Message, and Channel
Unformatted Document Text:  Breast Cancer Communication Preferences 6 consideration for recruiting women to participate in a program, but still do not include cultural explanations for these preferences. Marshall et al. (1995) included a comprehensive framework for communication preferences and thus we utilize the same three components of communication preferences—source, message, and channel. Source refers to who is the messenger. Sources include doctors and other medical experts (e.g., health educators), women with direct experience, family members, friends, and community leaders. Message refers to what are the characteristics of the message or the content. Message features include emotional appeal, use of statistics, narratives, and logical argument. Channel is the how the message is conveyed or the means of communicating the message. Channels included face-to-face (e.g., one-to-one meetings or community meetings), mass media (e.g., television, newspapers, and radio), and computer mediated (e.g., Web sites and e-mail). We now turn to subjective cultural explanations for potential differences in source, channel, and message. Subjective Culture Subjective culture is one approach that aids researchers in developing culturally- appropriate campaigns. Core aspects of attitudes, beliefs, perceptions, norms, and values are included in subjective culture. Through subjective culture methodology, one identifies core cultural characteristics that need to be addressed to create effective, appropriate messages. In the current study, we include three factors of subjective culture because of their relevance to communication preferences and breast cancer screening practices. Self-construal. One of the more popular cultural constructs is the distinction between individualism-collectivism. Individualism is a social pattern that consists of loosely linked individuals who give priority to their personal goals over the goals of others, while collectivism is a social pattern consisting of closely linked individuals who give priority to the goals of these collectives over their

Authors: DeVargas, Felicia., Sanchez, Christina. and Oetzel, John.
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Breast Cancer Communication Preferences
6
consideration for recruiting women to participate in a program, but still do not include cultural
explanations for these preferences.
Marshall et al. (1995) included a comprehensive framework for communication preferences
and thus we utilize the same three components of communication preferences—source, message, and
channel. Source refers to who is the messenger. Sources include doctors and other medical experts
(e.g., health educators), women with direct experience, family members, friends, and community
leaders. Message refers to what are the characteristics of the message or the content. Message features
include emotional appeal, use of statistics, narratives, and logical argument. Channel is the how the
message is conveyed or the means of communicating the message. Channels included face-to-face
(e.g., one-to-one meetings or community meetings), mass media (e.g., television, newspapers, and
radio), and computer mediated (e.g., Web sites and e-mail). We now turn to subjective cultural
explanations for potential differences in source, channel, and message.
Subjective Culture
Subjective culture is one approach that aids researchers in developing culturally- appropriate
campaigns. Core aspects of attitudes, beliefs, perceptions, norms, and values are included in subjective
culture. Through subjective culture methodology, one identifies core cultural characteristics that need
to be addressed to create effective, appropriate messages. In the current study, we include three factors
of subjective culture because of their relevance to communication preferences and breast cancer
screening practices.
Self-construal. One of the more popular cultural constructs is the distinction between
individualism-collectivism. Individualism is a social pattern that consists of loosely linked individuals
who give priority to their personal goals over the goals of others, while collectivism is a social pattern
consisting of closely linked individuals who give priority to the goals of these collectives over their


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