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Fear on the Radio: Cognitive and emotional responses to high-fear high-imagery messages
Unformatted Document Text:  hypothesis: H2: Heart rate will be faster for high-imagery, high-fear messages compared to low-imagery, high-fear messages after exposure when participants are instructed to think about a message. Given that negative messages result in attention being allocated externally to the message it could be that the experience of negative emotion is what interferes with the ability to allocate attention internally to mental imagery. Previous research has shown that negative emotion can be measured with facial EMG by measuring activity over the Corrugator muscle (Eckman, 1993). This study will explore the possibility that negative emotion interferes mental imagery during exposure by testing the following hypothesis: H3: Corrugator muscle activity will be greater during exposure to high-imagery, high-fear messages compared to low-imagery, high-fear messages. Previous research has also demonstrated that both negative emotion and imagery are production features that intensify arousal (Lang, Dhillon & Dong, 1995; author cite) as evidenced by increased skin conductance. This leads to a final hypothesis: H4: Skin conductance will be greater during exposure to high-imagery, high-fear messages compared to low- imagery, high-fear messages. Method Independent Variable Imagery Imagery is conceptually defined as production features of radio that engage listeners in imagery processing. According to previous research sound effects and descriptive wording increase the imagery level of a radio announcement (Miller & Marks, 1997). Imagery will be manipulated through the presence of sound effects and descriptive wording in the copy. Dependent Variables Attention Attention is mental effort put into processing the radio announcements. Heart rate will be obtained as a measure of attention. Participants’ heart rate will be measured for a five second baseline prior to onset of each message, time-locked to exposure to each message and for a 30 second post-exposure period during which participants will be instructed to think about the message they just listened to. Heart rate will be collected as

Authors: Bolls, Paul., Mendelson, Andrew. and Popeski, Wayne.
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hypothesis:
H2: Heart rate will be faster for high-imagery, high-fear messages compared to low-imagery, high-fear messages
after exposure when participants are instructed to think about a message.
Given that negative messages result in attention being allocated externally to the message it could be that
the experience of negative emotion is what interferes with the ability to allocate attention internally to mental
imagery. Previous research has shown that negative emotion can be measured with facial EMG by measuring
activity over the Corrugator muscle (Eckman, 1993). This study will explore the possibility that negative emotion
interferes mental imagery during exposure by testing the following hypothesis:
H3: Corrugator muscle activity will be greater during exposure to high-imagery, high-fear messages compared to
low-imagery, high-fear messages.
Previous research has also demonstrated that both negative emotion and imagery are production features
that intensify arousal (Lang, Dhillon & Dong, 1995; author cite) as evidenced by increased skin conductance. This
leads to a final hypothesis:
H4: Skin conductance will be greater during exposure to high-imagery, high-fear messages compared to low-
imagery, high-fear messages.
Method
Independent Variable
Imagery
Imagery is conceptually defined as production features of radio that engage listeners in imagery processing.
According to previous research sound effects and descriptive wording increase the imagery level of a radio
announcement (Miller & Marks, 1997). Imagery will be manipulated through the presence of sound effects and
descriptive wording in the copy.
Dependent Variables
Attention
Attention is mental effort put into processing the radio announcements. Heart rate will be obtained as a
measure of attention. Participants’ heart rate will be measured for a five second baseline prior to onset of each
message, time-locked to exposure to each message and for a 30 second post-exposure period during which
participants will be instructed to think about the message they just listened to. Heart rate will be collected as


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