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Ethics of Target Marketing: Process, Product or Target?
Unformatted Document Text:  16 recent research into consumer behavior and effects of target marketing provides inconclusive data as to whether or not certain populations are more vulnerable to target marketing than others. Researchers predominately have focused on targeting children and minority groups with alcohol and cigarettes to answer the question of vulnerability. These studies will be discussed below. Limited research has studied how to target and segment the elderly market (Ostroff, 1989; Sawchuck, 1995), but has not analyzed this market in terms of vulnerability. Several researchers have found a direct correlation between advertising and consumption of alcohol and cigarettes among children and youth. Schooler et al (1996) found that among 571 seventh graders in California the level of exposure to cigarette advertising was directly related to experimentation with smoking. Similarly, Sargent et al (1997) found that children who owned cigarette promotional items were more likely to smoke than those that did not. Fischer et al (1991) found that children ages three to six were able to associate Joe Camel with cigarettes, indicating that advertising has a direct impact on brand recognition and possibly future consumption. Examining youth drinking, Atkin et al (1983) found that alcohol advertising is positively correlated to heavy drinking, problem drinking, and hazardous drinking. However, they did not find a causal relationship. Grube et al (1994) found that exposure to beer advertisements among fifth and six graders was positively correlated to brand recognition recall, drinking expectation for adulthood, and beliefs about social aspects of drinking. Atkin et al (1984) found that adolescents who say they have seen more television and magazine advertisements for beer, wine and liquor generally drink more or expect that they will begin drinking.

Authors: Fisher, Brooke A..
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recent research into consumer behavior and effects of target marketing provides
inconclusive data as to whether or not certain populations are more vulnerable to target
marketing than others. Researchers predominately have focused on targeting children and
minority groups with alcohol and cigarettes to answer the question of vulnerability.
These studies will be discussed below. Limited research has studied how to target and
segment the elderly market (Ostroff, 1989; Sawchuck, 1995), but has not analyzed this
market in terms of vulnerability.
Several researchers have found a direct correlation between advertising and
consumption of alcohol and cigarettes among children and youth. Schooler et al (1996)
found that among 571 seventh graders in California the level of exposure to cigarette
advertising was directly related to experimentation with smoking. Similarly, Sargent et al
(1997) found that children who owned cigarette promotional items were more likely to
smoke than those that did not. Fischer et al (1991) found that children ages three to six
were able to associate Joe Camel with cigarettes, indicating that advertising has a direct
impact on brand recognition and possibly future consumption.
Examining youth drinking, Atkin et al (1983) found that alcohol advertising is
positively correlated to heavy drinking, problem drinking, and hazardous drinking.
However, they did not find a causal relationship. Grube et al (1994) found that exposure
to beer advertisements among fifth and six graders was positively correlated to brand
recognition recall, drinking expectation for adulthood, and beliefs about social aspects of
drinking. Atkin et al (1984) found that adolescents who say they have seen more
television and magazine advertisements for beer, wine and liquor generally drink more or
expect that they will begin drinking.


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