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Ethics of Target Marketing: Process, Product or Target?
Unformatted Document Text:  18 brand preferences can be segmented by ethnic group, and that these preferences parallel target marketing efforts. In addition, they found that the three most heavily advertised cigarette brands were the three most preferred brands. Davis et al (1987) found similar results. Franklyn (1987) discovered that African Americans consume 73% of all malt liquor, indicating that this alcoholic beverage has been targeted towards African Americas (rather than hypothesizing that African Americans have created a demand for this product). Several researchers have examined billboard advertisements in Black and Latino neighborhoods. Schooler et al (1990) concluded that black neighborhoods have a high density of billboards and a higher percentage of these are for cigarettes and advertising than form billboards in general. Mcmahon et al (1990) found that almost 60% of the billboards in Black neighborhoods advertised cigarettes and alcoholic beverages compared to only 36% in White neighborhoods. Alaniz (1998) indicated that Latino and African American communities have a much higher percentage of billboards, and that the majority of these billboards advertise alcohol. This study also found that the majority of billboards in the African American community advertised malt liquor and distilled spirits while the majority of advertisements in the Latino community advertised beer and wine Although these studies have documented the industry’s targeting of minorities, they have not indicated any adverse effects nor established a causal relationship between advertising and cigarette and alcohol consumption. In fact, many studies have indicated that there is no causal relationship between advertising and alcohol consumption. In a review of the empirical studies on alcohol consumption and advertising, Smart (1988) concluded that the relationship between advertising and alcohol consumption was weak at

Authors: Fisher, Brooke A..
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brand preferences can be segmented by ethnic group, and that these preferences parallel
target marketing efforts. In addition, they found that the three most heavily advertised
cigarette brands were the three most preferred brands. Davis et al (1987) found similar
results. Franklyn (1987) discovered that African Americans consume 73% of all malt
liquor, indicating that this alcoholic beverage has been targeted towards African Americas
(rather than hypothesizing that African Americans have created a demand for this
product).
Several researchers have examined billboard advertisements in Black and Latino
neighborhoods. Schooler et al (1990) concluded that black neighborhoods have a high
density of billboards and a higher percentage of these are for cigarettes and advertising
than form billboards in general. Mcmahon et al (1990) found that almost 60% of the
billboards in Black neighborhoods advertised cigarettes and alcoholic beverages
compared to only 36% in White neighborhoods. Alaniz (1998) indicated that Latino and
African American communities have a much higher percentage of billboards, and that the
majority of these billboards advertise alcohol. This study also found that the majority of
billboards in the African American community advertised malt liquor and distilled spirits
while the majority of advertisements in the Latino community advertised beer and wine
Although these studies have documented the industry’s targeting of minorities,
they have not indicated any adverse effects nor established a causal relationship between
advertising and cigarette and alcohol consumption. In fact, many studies have indicated
that there is no causal relationship between advertising and alcohol consumption. In a
review of the empirical studies on alcohol consumption and advertising, Smart (1988)
concluded that the relationship between advertising and alcohol consumption was weak at


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