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Ethics of Target Marketing: Process, Product or Target?
Unformatted Document Text:  20 statistics, it is worth mentioning as an indication that further research needs to be conducted to provide more conclusive results. Also of note is that no studies have found similar negative impacts for cigarettes advertising among African Americans; studies have examined cigarette brand preferences among African Americans, but high smoking rates have not been correlated with tobacco company target marketing of African Americans. In addition, research has not indicated a negative health impact on Latinos due to cigarette of alcohol targeted marketing efforts. Furthermore, Asians have not been studied in regards to adverse effects of target marketing. Therefore, the causal relationship between advertising of sin products to minorities and unhealthy behaviors remains inconclusive. Furthermore, though targeting strategies have been clearly identified, the perceived vulnerability of these consumers has not been clearly demonstrated. Some research, however, has indicated that certain consumers are more vulnerable than others, but this designation of susceptibility is not based upon racial or ethnic status. Sautter et al (1997) argue that socioeconomic status and education are much better indicators of vulnerability than gender or ethnicity. Calfee et al. (1994) indicate that price and income impact alcohol consumption, but advertising does not. Franke et al (1987) found that it is difficult to establish a causal link between advertising and alcohol consumption; it is often the case that consumption causes advertising. Therefore, while additional research needs to be conducted to provide more conclusive results, it makes sense that consumer vulnerability primarily is dependent upon social and economic factors, such as education and salary, rather than ethnicity. However, as ethnic groups tend to congregate in similar geographic locations and

Authors: Fisher, Brooke A..
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statistics, it is worth mentioning as an indication that further research needs to be
conducted to provide more conclusive results.
Also of note is that no studies have found similar negative impacts for cigarettes
advertising among African Americans; studies have examined cigarette brand preferences
among African Americans, but high smoking rates have not been correlated with tobacco
company target marketing of African Americans. In addition, research has not indicated a
negative health impact on Latinos due to cigarette of alcohol targeted marketing efforts.
Furthermore, Asians have not been studied in regards to adverse effects of target
marketing. Therefore, the causal relationship between advertising of sin products to
minorities and unhealthy behaviors remains inconclusive. Furthermore, though targeting
strategies have been clearly identified, the perceived vulnerability of these consumers has
not been clearly demonstrated.
Some research, however, has indicated that certain consumers are more vulnerable
than others, but this designation of susceptibility is not based upon racial or ethnic status.
Sautter et al (1997) argue that socioeconomic status and education are much better
indicators of vulnerability than gender or ethnicity. Calfee et al. (1994) indicate that price
and income impact alcohol consumption, but advertising does not. Franke et al (1987)
found that it is difficult to establish a causal link between advertising and alcohol
consumption; it is often the case that consumption causes advertising.
Therefore, while additional research needs to be conducted to provide more
conclusive results, it makes sense that consumer vulnerability primarily is dependent
upon social and economic factors, such as education and salary, rather than ethnicity.
However, as ethnic groups tend to congregate in similar geographic locations and


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