All Academic, Inc. Research Logo

Info/CitationFAQResearchAll Academic Inc.
Document

Responding to Activism: An Experimental Analysis of Public Relations Strategy Influence on Beliefs, Attitudes, and Behavioral Intentions
Unformatted Document Text:  Responding to Activism (ICA-15-11621) 14 (reversed); 2) I believe that McDonald’s acts responsibly in the treatment of food animals; and 3) I believe that McDonald’s acts as any other similar restaurant would in its treatment of food animals. Finally, a measure was created to examine attitude toward strategy. This item served as a measure of attitude toward target, which is predicted to effect salient beliefs about McDonald’s. To measure attitude toward strategy, subjects rated the statement, “I like the way McDonald’s responded to this problem,” on a 7-point Likert-type scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 7 (strongly agree). In addition to the variables outlined above, subjects were asked to provide demographic information, including gender, age and area of academic study. A final open-ended question allowed subjects to comment about the study. Results Data were analyzed using SPSS 10.1 for Windows. An alpha level of .05 was required for significance in all statistical analysis. Statistical procedures included analysis of the reliability of scales used to measure the variables of interest. To test the hypotheses, analysis of variance (ANOVA), correlation analysis and regression analysis was conducted. The relationships specified by the theory of reasoned action were examined prior to testing the hypotheses related to public relations strategies to ensure the validity of these tests. Prior to conducting hypothesis tests, a manipulation check was conducted for public relations strategy type. Manipulation Check for Strategy Type A manipulation check was conducted to assess the degree to which McDonald’s response message treatments agreed with the public relations strategy definitions presented in Hazleton’s taxonomy. An instrument was developed and administered to 29 students in a mass communication writing class. Participants received an 8-page questionnaire. The first page contained the following instruction: “The following questionnaire is designed to test the comprehensibility of various message strategies used in public relations. On each of the following pages, you will be asked to examine a different message from the fast-food restaurant McDonald’s. Each message is a carefully constructed response to a recent anti- McDonald’s campaign by the activist group PETA, People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals. Following each message, you will be given the definition of seven public relations strategies and asked to indicate how strongly the McDonald’s message characterizes each strategy.” Agreement between response message and strategy definition was measured on a 5-point Likert-type scale from 1 (strongly agree) to 5 (strongly disagree). The manipulation check utilized a balanced repeated measures design (N=29) to examine two aspects of agreement. For each response message, mean differences were compared across strategy definitions, and, for each strategy definition, mean differences were compared across the response messages. Mean differences were significant at the .05 level.

Authors: Page, Kelly.
first   previous   Page 15 of 39   next   last



background image
Responding to Activism (ICA-15-11621)
14
(reversed); 2) I believe that McDonald’s acts responsibly in the treatment of food animals; and 3) I
believe that McDonald’s acts as any other similar restaurant would in its treatment of food animals.
Finally, a measure was created to examine attitude toward strategy. This item served as a measure of
attitude toward target, which is predicted to effect salient beliefs about McDonald’s. To measure attitude
toward strategy, subjects rated the statement, “I like the way McDonald’s responded to this problem,” on
a 7-point Likert-type scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 7 (strongly agree).
In addition to the variables outlined above, subjects were asked to provide demographic information,
including gender, age and area of academic study. A final open-ended question allowed subjects to
comment about the study.
Results
Data were analyzed using SPSS 10.1 for Windows. An alpha level of .05 was required for
significance in all statistical analysis. Statistical procedures included analysis of the reliability of scales
used to measure the variables of interest. To test the hypotheses, analysis of variance (ANOVA),
correlation analysis and regression analysis was conducted. The relationships specified by the theory of
reasoned action were examined prior to testing the hypotheses related to public relations strategies to
ensure the validity of these tests. Prior to conducting hypothesis tests, a manipulation check was
conducted for public relations strategy type.
Manipulation Check for Strategy Type
A manipulation check was conducted to assess the degree to which McDonald’s response message
treatments agreed with the public relations strategy definitions presented in Hazleton’s taxonomy. An
instrument was developed and administered to 29 students in a mass communication writing class.
Participants received an 8-page questionnaire. The first page contained the following instruction: “The
following questionnaire is designed to test the comprehensibility of various message strategies used in
public relations. On each of the following pages, you will be asked to examine a different message from
the fast-food restaurant McDonald’s. Each message is a carefully constructed response to a recent anti-
McDonald’s campaign by the activist group PETA, People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals.
Following each message, you will be given the definition of seven public relations strategies and asked to
indicate how strongly the McDonald’s message characterizes each strategy.” Agreement between
response message and strategy definition was measured on a 5-point Likert-type scale from 1 (strongly
agree) to 5 (strongly disagree).
The manipulation check utilized a balanced repeated measures design (N=29) to examine two aspects
of agreement. For each response message, mean differences were compared across strategy definitions,
and, for each strategy definition, mean differences were compared across the response messages. Mean
differences were significant at the .05 level.


Convention
Convention is an application service for managing large or small academic conferences, annual meetings, and other types of events!
Submission - Custom fields, multiple submission types, tracks, audio visual, multiple upload formats, automatic conversion to pdf.
Review - Peer Review, Bulk reviewer assignment, bulk emails, ranking, z-score statistics, and multiple worksheets!
Reports - Many standard and custom reports generated while you wait. Print programs with participant indexes, event grids, and more!
Scheduling - Flexible and convenient grid scheduling within rooms and buildings. Conflict checking and advanced filtering.
Communication - Bulk email tools to help your administrators send reminders and responses. Use form letters, a message center, and much more!
Management - Search tools, duplicate people management, editing tools, submission transfers, many tools to manage a variety of conference management headaches!
Click here for more information.

first   previous   Page 15 of 39   next   last

©2012 All Academic, Inc.