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Are borders only georgaphic? A case study of whether framing of women’s rights as human rights is successful at the domestic level
Unformatted Document Text:  Framing women’s rights as human rights 3 Introduction In the last decade, the global issue of women’s rights and women empowerment has been on the agenda of United Nations General Assemblies, many NGOs conferences and IGOs meetings. One of the most influential international meetings, the Fourth World Conference on Women in 1995 in Beijing and the parallel NGO Forum on Women in Huairou, moved this issue to a new level: for the first time, 189 governments adopted the Platform for Action which constituted “a powerful agenda for women’s empowerment and gender equality” (United Nations, 2000a, p. 1). Women’s rights were officially recognized as essential human rights, and the states began to refer to women’s rights as such. The development of the frame women’s rights as human rights has come long way since the adoption of the 1967 Declaration on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (Timothy & Freeman, 2000). Today, human rights is an existing frame at the international level that women can strategically target for expansion and modification (Keck & Sikkink, 1998). This frame is successfully used by many international NGOs to address their concerns about the status of women in the modern world and highlight the suggestions to improve the current situation. After successful adoption of the Platform for Action in 1995, the United Nations, NGOs, and States actively interacted with one another to ensure the implementation of the Platform. Five years later, a special session of the United Nations General Assembly, which was named the Beijing+5 session, was conducted in New York. The goal of the session was to focus on the examples of positive practices and good actions, as well as obstacles and challenges that constitute an agenda for women’s empowerment. This session aimed to reaffirm that the implementation would require active involvement and willingness of governments to continue

Authors: Tsetsura, Katerina.
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Framing women’s rights as human rights
3
Introduction
In the last decade, the global issue of women’s rights and women empowerment has been
on the agenda of United Nations General Assemblies, many NGOs conferences and IGOs
meetings. One of the most influential international meetings, the Fourth World Conference on
Women in 1995 in Beijing and the parallel NGO Forum on Women in Huairou, moved this issue
to a new level: for the first time, 189 governments adopted the Platform for Action which
constituted “a powerful agenda for women’s empowerment and gender equality” (United
Nations, 2000a, p. 1). Women’s rights were officially recognized as essential human rights, and
the states began to refer to women’s rights as such.
The development of the frame women’s rights as human rights has come long way since
the adoption of the 1967 Declaration on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women
(Timothy & Freeman, 2000). Today, human rights is an existing frame at the international level
that women can strategically target for expansion and modification (Keck & Sikkink, 1998). This
frame is successfully used by many international NGOs to address their concerns about the
status of women in the modern world and highlight the suggestions to improve the current
situation.
After successful adoption of the Platform for Action in 1995, the United Nations, NGOs,
and States actively interacted with one another to ensure the implementation of the Platform.
Five years later, a special session of the United Nations General Assembly, which was named the
Beijing+5 session, was conducted in New York. The goal of the session was to focus on the
examples of positive practices and good actions, as well as obstacles and challenges that
constitute an agenda for women’s empowerment. This session aimed to reaffirm that the
implementation would require active involvement and willingness of governments to continue


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