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Are borders only georgaphic? A case study of whether framing of women’s rights as human rights is successful at the domestic level
Unformatted Document Text:  Framing women’s rights as human rights 6 What does make a frame effective? Four types of politics used by networks in persuasion – information, symbolic, leverage, and accountability – need to be present in order for any frame to work effectively. Information politics points out that any effective frame should “show that a given state of affairs is neither natural nor accidental, identify the responsible party or parties, and propose credible solutions” (p. 19). Thus, powerful messages need to appeal to shared principles of those to whom a frame is directed. NGOs that construct such frames need to be credible sources and present well-documented information. Symbolic politics includes a symbolic interpretation of the frame through which awareness about the issue is created. This tactic helps to attract more attention to the networks as well as to stimulate the growth of the network. Leverage politics links the issue to material outcomes, such as money and goods. Political effectiveness that networks seek through this type of politics assumes some policy change, often in relation to financial matters, as a result of NGO efforts. Finally, accountability politics allows networks to hold governments to principles and to expose distances between governmental discourse and practice. Domestic structures do not always allow to hold states and private actors accountable to their principles. That is why a boomerang pattern can be used by networks. A boomerang pattern is the process in which NGOs, being unable to pressure own states, communicate concerns to NGOs in other countries, and those NGOs then pressure their states to influence a change in a policy of the original state. Thus, states can pressure other states to change policies through the intergovernmental organizations, after the ground work on the issue has been done collectively by NGOs in those countries.

Authors: Tsetsura, Katerina.
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Framing women’s rights as human rights
6
What does make a frame effective? Four types of politics used by networks in persuasion
– information, symbolic, leverage, and accountability – need to be present in order for any frame
to work effectively. Information politics points out that any effective frame should “show that a
given state of affairs is neither natural nor accidental, identify the responsible party or parties,
and propose credible solutions” (p. 19). Thus, powerful messages need to appeal to shared
principles of those to whom a frame is directed. NGOs that construct such frames need to be
credible sources and present well-documented information.
Symbolic politics includes a symbolic interpretation of the frame through which
awareness about the issue is created. This tactic helps to attract more attention to the networks as
well as to stimulate the growth of the network.
Leverage politics links the issue to material outcomes, such as money and goods.
Political effectiveness that networks seek through this type of politics assumes some policy
change, often in relation to financial matters, as a result of NGO efforts.
Finally, accountability politics allows networks to hold governments to principles and to
expose distances between governmental discourse and practice. Domestic structures do not
always allow to hold states and private actors accountable to their principles. That is why a
boomerang pattern can be used by networks. A boomerang pattern is the process in which
NGOs, being unable to pressure own states, communicate concerns to NGOs in other countries,
and those NGOs then pressure their states to influence a change in a policy of the original state.
Thus, states can pressure other states to change policies through the intergovernmental
organizations, after the ground work on the issue has been done collectively by NGOs in those
countries.


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