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Are borders only georgaphic? A case study of whether framing of women’s rights as human rights is successful at the domestic level
Unformatted Document Text:  Framing women’s rights as human rights 7 It is necessary to point out that a boomerang pattern works only in case of a well-created network in which NGOs see one another as equally important and credible members. Keck and Sikkink (1998) do not elaborate on how these tactics can be used in combination for promoting a particular frame and whether all of the tactics should be employed to make a frame successful. As I argue later, the combination of tactics would depend on cultural and social particularities of the region in which the frame is used. The frame of women’s rights as human rights is not effective at the domestic level in the former U.S.S.R. countries because it fails to meet these requirements. In order to have influence on states, networks should pass five stages that Keck and Sikkink (1998) identify as: 1) issue creation and agenda setting, 2) influence on discursive practices of states and international organizations, 3) influence on institutional changes, 4) influence on policy changes in primary actors, and 5) influence on behaviors of states. The authors demonstrate that the issue of women’s rights on the international level has passed several stages and now is on the fifth stage. However, when one looks at the influence stages at the domestic levels, the picture changes: NGOs in many countries still have a long way to go to achieve the influence in certain stages. Moreover, NGOs in some regions, such as countries of the former U.S.S.R., experience a big problem in influencing the states because the existing frame of women’s rights as human rights allows the issue to pass the stages of influence without making countable changes in the existing policies of the states. Now I will analyze cultural and social particularities of the issue of women’s rights and the weaknesses of using this frame at the domestic level in countries of the former U.S.S.R.

Authors: Tsetsura, Katerina.
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Framing women’s rights as human rights
7
It is necessary to point out that a boomerang pattern works only in case of a well-created
network in which NGOs see one another as equally important and credible members.
Keck and Sikkink (1998) do not elaborate on how these tactics can be used in
combination for promoting a particular frame and whether all of the tactics should be employed
to make a frame successful. As I argue later, the combination of tactics would depend on cultural
and social particularities of the region in which the frame is used. The frame of women’s rights
as human rights is not effective at the domestic level in the former U.S.S.R. countries because it
fails to meet these requirements.
In order to have influence on states, networks should pass five stages that Keck and
Sikkink (1998) identify as: 1) issue creation and agenda setting, 2) influence on discursive
practices of states and international organizations, 3) influence on institutional changes, 4)
influence on policy changes in primary actors, and 5) influence on behaviors of states. The
authors demonstrate that the issue of women’s rights on the international level has passed several
stages and now is on the fifth stage. However, when one looks at the influence stages at the
domestic levels, the picture changes: NGOs in many countries still have a long way to go to
achieve the influence in certain stages. Moreover, NGOs in some regions, such as countries of
the former U.S.S.R., experience a big problem in influencing the states because the existing
frame of women’s rights as human rights allows the issue to pass the stages of influence without
making countable changes in the existing policies of the states. Now I will analyze cultural and
social particularities of the issue of women’s rights and the weaknesses of using this frame at the
domestic level in countries of the former U.S.S.R.


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