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Risk and Efficacy as Motivators of Change: Test of the Risk Perception Attitude (RPA) Framework
Unformatted Document Text:  The RPA Framework 11 percent of the time. Finally, note that the above behaviors are really quite easy to do. Apart from getting tested for diabetes, all other precautionary measures listed above can be incorporated into your daily life. Not only are they easy to do, they are also quite effective in preventing diabetes.” Low Efficacy. If the participant was randomly assigned to the low efficacy condition, the participant received the following message: “There's not a whole lot that you can do to change your risk of getting diabetes. Experts tell us that if you exercise regularly, eat lots of fruits and vegetables, minimize your consumption of fatty foods, and drink lots of fluids, you can manage your diabetes if you already have it, but it turns out that there is almost nothing you can do to change your risk to diabetes. Our fate is determined when we are born -- diabetes is genetically caused. This means that if you are at risk, there is almost nothing you can do to prevent the disease. Alternatively, those who are not at risk are also unable to change that risk. In fact, studies show that family history of diabetes is such a powerful determinant of the disease that nothing else seems to matter. A considerable amount of research is currently underway to develop a diabetes vaccine, but until that happens, there is little we can do change our pre-determined risk levels. Finally, even the thing that experts tell us to do -- get tested for diabetes, for example -- is not very convenient. Most people have a difficult time asking for a diabetes test. Not only is the test inconvenient and sometimes expensive, but it's also difficult to have the health insurance company pay for it.” Measures The following measures were obtained in an identical manner from participants in all four conditions. Some measures were obtained before the manipulations under the guise that

Authors: Rimal, Rajiv., Morrison, Dan. and Mitchell, Monique.
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The RPA Framework
11
percent of the time. Finally, note that the above behaviors are really quite easy to do.
Apart from getting tested for diabetes, all other precautionary measures listed above can
be incorporated into your daily life. Not only are they easy to do, they are also quite
effective in preventing diabetes.”
Low Efficacy. If the participant was randomly assigned to the low efficacy condition, the
participant received the following message:
“There's not a whole lot that you can do to change your risk of getting diabetes. Experts
tell us that if you exercise regularly, eat lots of fruits and vegetables, minimize your
consumption of fatty foods, and drink lots of fluids, you can manage your diabetes if you
already have it, but it turns out that there is almost nothing you can do to change your risk
to diabetes. Our fate is determined when we are born -- diabetes is genetically caused.
This means that if you are at risk, there is almost nothing you can do to prevent the
disease. Alternatively, those who are not at risk are also unable to change that risk. In
fact, studies show that family history of diabetes is such a powerful determinant of the
disease that nothing else seems to matter. A considerable amount of research is currently
underway to develop a diabetes vaccine, but until that happens, there is little we can do
change our pre-determined risk levels. Finally, even the thing that experts tell us to do --
get tested for diabetes, for example -- is not very convenient. Most people have a
difficult time asking for a diabetes test. Not only is the test inconvenient and sometimes
expensive, but it's also difficult to have the health insurance company pay for it.”
Measures
The following measures were obtained in an identical manner from participants in all
four conditions. Some measures were obtained before the manipulations under the guise that


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