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Risk and Efficacy as Motivators of Change: Test of the Risk Perception Attitude (RPA) Framework
Unformatted Document Text:  The RPA Framework 12 they would be used to measure participants’ risk to diabetes, whereas other measures were obtained only after the manipulations. Prior Involvement. Before the manipulations, we asked three questions to determine the extent to which participants had prior involvement with diabetes. Participants were asked how many times they had been tested for diabetes, whether any health professional had ever told them that they were at risk, and whether family members or friends had ever told them that they were at risk. A fourth question asked participants how many of their family members, to the best of their knowledge, had been diagnosed with diabetes. Responses to all four questions were then standardized and averaged into an index (alpha = .66) This index was used as a covariate in order to control for participants’ prior involvement with diabetes. Self-Protective Motivation. After the risk and efficacy manipulations, participants were asked four questions to measure the extent to which they were motivated to engage in self- protective behaviors. These questions, adapted from previous work (XXX, in press), asked participants to express the extent to which they agreed or disagreed with four statements: “Preventing diabetes is a high priority for me”; “I want to do everything I can to prevent diabetes”; “I feel inspired to do everything I can to prevent diabetes”; and “I believe in doing what I can to prevent diabetes.” Responses, measured on a 7-point Likert scale, were averaged into an index (alpha = .90). Intention to Seek Information. After the manipulations, four questions asked participants how likely they would be to pay attention to stories about diabetes if they encountered such stories on television, in newspapers, on the Internet, and in magazines. Five questions asked how likely they would be to talk about diabetes with their friends, family members, doctors,

Authors: Rimal, Rajiv., Morrison, Dan. and Mitchell, Monique.
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The RPA Framework
12
they would be used to measure participants’ risk to diabetes, whereas other measures were
obtained only after the manipulations.
Prior
Involvement. Before the manipulations, we asked three questions to determine the
extent to which participants had prior involvement with diabetes. Participants were asked how
many times they had been tested for diabetes, whether any health professional had ever told them
that they were at risk, and whether family members or friends had ever told them that they were
at risk. A fourth question asked participants how many of their family members, to the best of
their knowledge, had been diagnosed with diabetes. Responses to all four questions were then
standardized and averaged into an index (alpha = .66) This index was used as a covariate in order
to control for participants’ prior involvement with diabetes.
Self-Protective
Motivation. After the risk and efficacy manipulations, participants were
asked four questions to measure the extent to which they were motivated to engage in self-
protective behaviors. These questions, adapted from previous work (XXX, in press), asked
participants to express the extent to which they agreed or disagreed with four statements:
“Preventing diabetes is a high priority for me”; “I want to do everything I can to prevent
diabetes”; “I feel inspired to do everything I can to prevent diabetes”; and “I believe in doing
what I can to prevent diabetes.” Responses, measured on a 7-point Likert scale, were averaged
into an index (alpha = .90).
Intention to Seek Information. After the manipulations, four questions asked participants
how likely they would be to pay attention to stories about diabetes if they encountered such
stories on television, in newspapers, on the Internet, and in magazines. Five questions asked
how likely they would be to talk about diabetes with their friends, family members, doctors,


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