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Risk and Efficacy as Motivators of Change: Test of the Risk Perception Attitude (RPA) Framework
Unformatted Document Text:  The RPA Framework 13 nurses, and other people in general. Responses, all measured on a 7-point Likert scales, were then standardized and averaged into an index (alpha = .90). Actual Information Seeking. After participants answered the post-manipulation questions, they were told that the researchers had compiled a number of Web sites dealing with diabetes and that they were free to view as many as they wanted. No time limit was imposed on participants’ ability to browse the Web sites. Unbeknownst to participants, we kept track of the total amount of time that they spent reviewing the various Web sites on diabetes. Prior Knowledge. Before the manipulations, 10 diabetes-related questions were asked of all participants. These questions pertained to symptoms of the disease, recommended preventive actions, physiological effects of the disease, etc. Responses were of either multiple-choice or true-false format. One point was assigned for each correct response, and a total was calculated for each participant (alpha= .41). The average score, out of a total of 10, was 4.0 (SD = 1.8). Knowledge Acquisition. After participants indicated that they were finished reviewing the Web sites, they were given a battery of 20 questions that tested them on Web site content. Ten of these questions were the same ones used to test prior knowledge, but the other 10 were new questions. One point was assigned for each correct response, and a total was calculated for each participant (alpha = .79). We should also note that the internal consistency for the 10 items used to measure prior knowledge, when asked after the manipulations, was alpha = .73, thus indicating that one of the effects of the manipulations was to create greater homogeneity in responses. The average knowledge acquisition score, for all 20 measures, was 10.94 (SD = 3.4). Thus, before the manipulations, participants’ knowledge score was 40 percent of the total, whereas after the manipulation, this score jumped to almost 55 percent.

Authors: Rimal, Rajiv., Morrison, Dan. and Mitchell, Monique.
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The RPA Framework
13
nurses, and other people in general. Responses, all measured on a 7-point Likert scales, were
then standardized and averaged into an index (alpha = .90).
Actual Information Seeking. After participants answered the post-manipulation
questions, they were told that the researchers had compiled a number of Web sites dealing with
diabetes and that they were free to view as many as they wanted. No time limit was imposed on
participants’ ability to browse the Web sites. Unbeknownst to participants, we kept track of the
total amount of time that they spent reviewing the various Web sites on diabetes.
Prior
Knowledge. Before the manipulations, 10 diabetes-related questions were asked of
all participants. These questions pertained to symptoms of the disease, recommended preventive
actions, physiological effects of the disease, etc. Responses were of either multiple-choice or
true-false format. One point was assigned for each correct response, and a total was calculated
for each participant (alpha= .41). The average score, out of a total of 10, was 4.0 (SD = 1.8).
Knowledge
Acquisition. After participants indicated that they were finished reviewing
the Web sites, they were given a battery of 20 questions that tested them on Web site content.
Ten of these questions were the same ones used to test prior knowledge, but the other 10 were
new questions. One point was assigned for each correct response, and a total was calculated for
each participant (alpha = .79). We should also note that the internal consistency for the 10 items
used to measure prior knowledge, when asked after the manipulations, was alpha = .73, thus
indicating that one of the effects of the manipulations was to create greater homogeneity in
responses. The average knowledge acquisition score, for all 20 measures, was 10.94 (SD = 3.4).
Thus, before the manipulations, participants’ knowledge score was 40 percent of the total,
whereas after the manipulation, this score jumped to almost 55 percent.


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