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Risk and Efficacy as Motivators of Change: Test of the Risk Perception Attitude (RPA) Framework
Unformatted Document Text:  The RPA Framework 18 and the proactive (M = 2.46, SD = 2.40) groups was not significant (p > .05). Hence, Hypothesis H1A and H1B were supported; H1C was not supported. Means are shown in Figure 2. Figure 2. Effects on Rate of Knowledge Acquisition Perceived Risk High Low Know ledge Acquisition 4.0 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 Efficacy Beliefs Low High Effects on Behavioral Intention An ANCOVA model was run with behavioral intention as the dependent variable; predictors were the risk and efficacy manipulations and their interaction term; and the covariate was prior involvement. The overall ANCOVA model was significant, F(4, 127) = 7.55, p < .0001, 2 = .19. Prior involvement was significantly correlated with behavioral intention, F(1, 125) = 5.82, p < .05, as was the risk manipulation, F(1, 125) = 15.02, p < .0001. The efficacy manipulation was not significant, F(1, 125) = 2.38, p > .05. The risk X efficacy manipulation was significant, F(1, 125) = 4.63, p < .05. Planned contrasts revealed that the avoidance group (M = .28, SD = .72) was not significantly different (p > .05) from the responsive group (M = .21, SD = .73). However, the proactive group (M = .01, SD = .73) expressed significantly healthier behavioral intentions (p < .05) than the indifference group (M = -.49, SD = .72). Hence,

Authors: Rimal, Rajiv., Morrison, Dan. and Mitchell, Monique.
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The RPA Framework
18
and the proactive (M = 2.46, SD = 2.40) groups was not significant (p > .05). Hence, Hypothesis
H1A and H1B were supported; H1C was not supported. Means are shown in Figure 2.
Figure 2. Effects on Rate of Knowledge Acquisition
Perceived Risk
High
Low
K
n
o
w
l
e
d
g
e
A
c
q
u
i
s
i
t
i
o
n
4.0
3.5
3.0
2.5
2.0
Efficacy Beliefs
Low
High
Effects on Behavioral Intention
An ANCOVA model was run with behavioral intention as the dependent variable;
predictors were the risk and efficacy manipulations and their interaction term; and the covariate
was prior involvement. The overall ANCOVA model was significant, F(4, 127) = 7.55, p <
.0001,
2
= .19. Prior involvement was significantly correlated with behavioral intention, F(1,
125) = 5.82, p < .05, as was the risk manipulation, F(1, 125) = 15.02, p < .0001. The efficacy
manipulation was not significant, F(1, 125) = 2.38, p > .05. The risk
X
efficacy manipulation
was significant, F(1, 125) = 4.63, p < .05. Planned contrasts revealed that the avoidance group
(M = .28, SD = .72) was not significantly different (p > .05) from the responsive group (M = .21,
SD = .73). However, the proactive group (M = .01, SD = .73) expressed significantly healthier
behavioral intentions (p < .05) than the indifference group (M = -.49, SD = .72). Hence,


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