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A Challenge to the Duel: Socializing Dedicated Virtual Reality Fans to the Ideology of Textualism
Unformatted Document Text:  A Challenge to the Duel 24 used to organize the special events. I wanted the research design to be multifaceted in order to gather evidence from both production and audience circles. Attention to production and reception allowed me to examine those structural controls from different perspectives. While Virtual World created the format, the fans have appropriated it and given it style. 2 Arnold Pacey, The Culture of Technology (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1983). 3 Rob Kling, Holly Crawford, Howard Rosenbaum, Steve Sawyer, and Suzanne Weisband, "Learning from Social Informatics: Information and Communications Technologies in Human Contexts" The Center for Social Informatics, ([http://www.slis.indiana.edu/CSI], 1998, 1999, 2000), 207. 4 Chandra Mukerji and Michael Schudson, Rethinking Popular Culture: Contemporary Perspectives in Cultural Studies (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991), 3-4. 5 Espen Aarseth, Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic Literature (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1997), 1. 6 For an example of how Aarseth treats agency: "What is a text? ... In the context of this study, the question of the text becomes a question of verbal media and their functional differences (what role does a medium play?), and only subsequently a question of semantics, influence, otherness, mental events, intentionality, and so forth. These philosophical problems have not left us, but they belong to a different level of textuality (p. 15)." 7 Marie-Laure Ryan, Narrative as Virtual Reality (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2001). 8 Michael Silverstein and Greg Urban, Natural Histories of Discourse (Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press, 1996), 1-17. 9 Elizabeth Metz, "Recontextualization as Socialization: Text and Pragmatics in the Law School Classroom" in Natural Histories of Discourse, Michael Silverstein and Greg Urban, eds. (Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press, 1996). 10 James Collins, "Socialization to Text: Structure and Contradiction in Schooled Literacy," in Natural Histories of Discourse, Michael Silverstein and Greg Urban, eds. (Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press, 1996). 11 Michael Silverstein, "The Secret Life of Texts" in Natural Histories of Discourse, Michael Silverstein and Greg Urban, eds. (Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press, 1996), 97. 12 Carrie Heeter conducted a 1991 survey of Chicago BattleTech Center customers over a one-week period in 1991. Carrie Heeter, "BattleTech: Who are the players?" IEEE Computer Graphics & Applications, (Sidebar) March 1992 and "Consumer Research on Commercial VR," in Communication in the Age of Virtual Reality, Frank Biocca and Mark Levy, eds., 1995. I was able to compare Heeter’s original survey data with my own from a Special Event held in Oct. 2000. 13 An early version of the game, "Behind Enemy Lines," was awarded Best Roleplaying Rules of 1982 by the Game Manufacturer’s Association. 14 Michael A. Stackpole, The Warrior Trilogy, Warrior: En Garde, Vol. 1 (New York: ROC, 1988, 1998), 336-37. 15 Virtual World Entertainment. Forums. http://virtualworld.com/ Nov. 2000. 16 Terry "Kamui" Cokenour, "Man Mountain Bob’s Top 10 List: This Month ... The Top 10 "Smack" Lines, Journals of the Virtual Geographic League (Aug./Sept 1996), p. 8.

Authors: Tew, Chad.
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A Challenge to the Duel
24
used to organize the special events. I wanted the research design to be multifaceted in order to gather
evidence from both production and audience circles. Attention to production and reception allowed me to
examine those structural controls from different perspectives. While Virtual World created the format, the
fans have appropriated it and given it style.
2
Arnold Pacey, The Culture of Technology (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1983).
3
Rob Kling, Holly Crawford, Howard Rosenbaum, Steve Sawyer, and Suzanne Weisband, "Learning from
Social Informatics: Information and Communications Technologies in Human Contexts" The Center for
Social Informatics, ([http://www.slis.indiana.edu/CSI], 1998, 1999, 2000), 207.
4
Chandra Mukerji and Michael Schudson, Rethinking Popular Culture: Contemporary Perspectives in
Cultural Studies (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991), 3-4.
5
Espen Aarseth, Cybertext: Perspectives on Ergodic Literature (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University
Press, 1997), 1.
6
For an example of how Aarseth treats agency: "What is a text? ... In the context of this study, the question
of the text becomes a question of verbal media and their functional differences (what role does a medium
play?), and only subsequently a question of semantics, influence, otherness, mental events, intentionality,
and so forth. These philosophical problems have not left us, but they belong to a different level of textuality
(p. 15)."
7
Marie-Laure Ryan, Narrative as Virtual Reality (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2001).
8
Michael Silverstein and Greg Urban, Natural Histories of Discourse (Chicago and London: The
University of Chicago Press, 1996), 1-17.
9
Elizabeth Metz, "Recontextualization as Socialization: Text and Pragmatics in the Law School
Classroom" in Natural Histories of Discourse, Michael Silverstein and Greg Urban, eds. (Chicago and
London: The University of Chicago Press, 1996).
10
James Collins, "Socialization to Text: Structure and Contradiction in Schooled Literacy," in Natural
Histories of Discourse, Michael Silverstein and Greg Urban, eds. (Chicago and London: The University of
Chicago Press, 1996).
11
Michael Silverstein, "The Secret Life of Texts" in Natural Histories of Discourse, Michael Silverstein
and Greg Urban, eds. (Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press, 1996), 97.
12
Carrie Heeter conducted a 1991 survey of Chicago BattleTech Center customers over a one-week period
in 1991. Carrie Heeter, "BattleTech: Who are the players?" IEEE Computer Graphics & Applications,
(Sidebar) March 1992 and "Consumer Research on Commercial VR," in Communication in the Age of
Virtual Reality
, Frank Biocca and Mark Levy, eds., 1995. I was able to compare Heeter’s original survey
data with my own from a Special Event held in Oct. 2000.
13
An early version of the game, "Behind Enemy Lines," was awarded Best Roleplaying Rules of 1982 by
the Game Manufacturer’s Association.
14
Michael A. Stackpole, The Warrior Trilogy, Warrior: En Garde, Vol. 1 (New York: ROC, 1988, 1998),
336-37.
15
Virtual World Entertainment. Forums. http://virtualworld.com/ Nov. 2000.
16
Terry "Kamui" Cokenour, "Man Mountain Bob’s Top 10 List: This Month ... The Top 10 "Smack" Lines,
Journals of the Virtual Geographic League (Aug./Sept 1996), p. 8.


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