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Young Smokers Cognitive and Affective Responses to Gain-framed and Loss-framed Antismoking Message: A Think Aloud Protocol Study
Unformatted Document Text:  Framing Antismoking Message – 11 Some studies found that adding an aspect of self-efficacy (McCaul et al., 1988) or perceived control over the behavior to the model would help better predict the health- related behavioral intention (Ajzen, 1988; Ajzen & Timko, 1986; Godin & Gionet, 1991; Schifter & Ajzen, 1985). Ajzen (1988) extended the model to cover incompletely volitional behaviors and added a new component, the perceived behavioral control for predicting behavioral intention. Perceived behavioral control is defined as the perceived ease or obstacles of performing the behavior and reflects past experience (Ajzen, 1988). RQ8: What proportions of the cognitive thoughts are about beliefs, outcome evaluation, attitudes, subjective norms, behavioral intention, perceived behavioral control, and behaviors? Method Samples A total of 32 students who smoked regularly or occasionally were recruited from classes in different departments at a large mid-western university. They were identified as regular or occasional smokers from their answers given to a pretest (prior-experiment) questionnaire: the number of the cigarettes smoked in their life was rated either 26-99 cigarettes or more than 100 cigarettes, and they have smoked in the past 30 days or indicated they smoked now and were likely to smoke in the near future although they did smoke the past 30 days (i.e., two participants answered “Not at all” in response to the question, “During the past 30 days, about how many cigarettes did you smoke per day?” They answered “quite probable” or “neutral” in response to the question “Is it probably that you will stop smoking cigarettes in the next 6 months?” instead of choosing the answer “I don’t smoke now,” and they answered “quite probable” or “slightly probable”

Authors: Cheng, I-Huei. and Cameron, Glen.
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Framing Antismoking Message –
11
Some studies found that adding an aspect of self-efficacy (McCaul et al., 1988) or
perceived control over the behavior to the model would help better predict the health-
related behavioral intention (Ajzen, 1988; Ajzen & Timko, 1986; Godin & Gionet, 1991;
Schifter & Ajzen, 1985). Ajzen (1988) extended the model to cover incompletely
volitional behaviors and added a new component, the perceived behavioral control for
predicting behavioral intention. Perceived behavioral control is defined as the perceived
ease or obstacles of performing the behavior and reflects past experience (Ajzen, 1988).
RQ8: What proportions of the cognitive thoughts are about beliefs, outcome
evaluation, attitudes, subjective norms, behavioral intention, perceived
behavioral control, and behaviors?
Method
Samples
A total of 32 students who smoked regularly or occasionally were recruited from
classes in different departments at a large mid-western university. They were identified
as regular or occasional smokers from their answers given to a pretest (prior-experiment)
questionnaire: the number of the cigarettes smoked in their life was rated either 26-99
cigarettes or more than 100 cigarettes, and they have smoked in the past 30 days or
indicated they smoked now and were likely to smoke in the near future although they did
smoke the past 30 days (i.e., two participants answered “Not at all” in response to the
question, “During the past 30 days, about how many cigarettes did you smoke per day?”
They answered “quite probable” or “neutral” in response to the question “Is it probably
that you will stop smoking cigarettes in the next 6 months?” instead of choosing the
answer “I don’t smoke now,” and they answered “quite probable” or “slightly probable”


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