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Young Smokersˇ¦ Cognitive and Affective Responses to Gain-framed and Loss-framed Antismoking Message: A Think Aloud Protocol Study
Unformatted Document Text:  Framing Antismoking Message – 12 in response to the question, “Is it probable that you will try smoking cigarettes in the next 6 months”). It was confirmed that all participants were regular smokers or occasional smokers from their protocols when they engaged in viewing smoking-related messages and the inquiries by the researcher after the experiment. Participants were composed of 10 females, and 22 males, and 30 were undergraduate college students and two were graduate students. The average age of participants was 21. In terms of race or ethnicity, 29 participants identified themselves as white or Caucasian, one identified as Hispanic or Latino, one as black or African American, and one as Asian. Think Aloud Technique To observe the cognitive processes when people engage in viewing smoking-related messages, this study used a method of think-aloud protocol, which has strength for exploring the process when information passes through short-term memory as a person reports verbally (Shapiro, 1994). Protocol analysis is considered to be more effective than retrospective analysis, which may have a problem of memory recall (Shapiro, 1994). Best of all, think-aloud technique provides the benefit of assuring that participants do view and think about the messages; whereas in an experiment that mails out or hands over a brochure, or plays a video tape, it is not guaranteed that subjects receive the stimulus. The think-aloud technique has been applied to understand how people write (Smagorninsky, 1989), and reason when forming arguments (Hample, 2000). It has also been used to examine how people use new information technologies (Eveland & Dunwoody, 2000). This study used this approach of concurrent reporting to measure the cognitive thoughts and observe the reactions that occur when young smokers engage in

Authors: Cheng, I-Huei. and Cameron, Glen.
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Framing Antismoking Message –
12
in response to the question, “Is it probable that you will try smoking cigarettes in the next
6 months”). It was confirmed that all participants were regular smokers or occasional
smokers from their protocols when they engaged in viewing smoking-related messages
and the inquiries by the researcher after the experiment.
Participants were composed of 10 females, and 22 males, and 30 were
undergraduate college students and two were graduate students. The average age of
participants was 21. In terms of race or ethnicity, 29 participants identified themselves as
white or Caucasian, one identified as Hispanic or Latino, one as black or African
American, and one as Asian.
Think Aloud Technique
To observe the cognitive processes when people engage in viewing smoking-related
messages, this study used a method of think-aloud protocol, which has strength for
exploring the process when information passes through short-term memory as a person
reports verbally (Shapiro, 1994). Protocol analysis is considered to be more effective
than retrospective analysis, which may have a problem of memory recall (Shapiro, 1994).
Best of all, think-aloud technique provides the benefit of assuring that participants do
view and think about the messages; whereas in an experiment that mails out or hands
over a brochure, or plays a video tape, it is not guaranteed that subjects receive the
stimulus. The think-aloud technique has been applied to understand how people write
(Smagorninsky, 1989), and reason when forming arguments (Hample, 2000). It has also
been used to examine how people use new information technologies (Eveland &
Dunwoody, 2000). This study used this approach of concurrent reporting to measure the
cognitive thoughts and observe the reactions that occur when young smokers engage in


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