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Young Smokersˇ¦ Cognitive and Affective Responses to Gain-framed and Loss-framed Antismoking Message: A Think Aloud Protocol Study
Unformatted Document Text:  Framing Antismoking Message – 13 the thinking of browsing antismoking ads. Coding Unit The coding unit for the think-aloud protocols is a thought. In the think aloud study of Eveland and Dunwoody (2000) on Web site information processing, one thought unit is one sentence, one phrase or a single word, distinguished by pauses in speech. They coded thoughts into mutually exclusive cognitive categories (i.e., maintenance —reading or repeating the text on the computer’s screen, orientation —navigation in the Web site or searching for other information, evaluation —judging the quality, content or structure of the Web site, and elaboration —recalling past knowledge or experience). Based on the degree to which that each category requires information process, these categories composed a hierarchy from low to high as: maintenance, orientation, evaluation and elaboration. If one thought involved two categories, it was coded into the higher category that required more sophisticated information processing (e.g., if a thought involved both evaluation and elaboration, it was coded as elaboration because elaboration requires more information processing than evaluation does). The coding scheme for this present study does not have the category of orientation because the materials used in this study were text messages, not Web sites, and thus did not require any navigation or information search. In term of segmenting thoughts, this study used the same approach as Dillard and Peck (2001) did in their study where they measured individuals’ cognitive responses to different PSAs. Instead of taking a regular sentence as a thought unit as Eveland and Dunwoody (2000) did, this study segmented thoughts in a more detailed manner. For example, a sentence such as “This message bothers me because it is not always the case that smokers have bad breath” composes two thought units at the break point of

Authors: Cheng, I-Huei. and Cameron, Glen.
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background image
Framing Antismoking Message –
13
the thinking of browsing antismoking ads.
Coding Unit
The coding unit for the think-aloud protocols is a thought. In the think aloud study
of Eveland and Dunwoody (2000) on Web site information processing, one thought unit
is one sentence, one phrase or a single word, distinguished by pauses in speech. They
coded thoughts into mutually exclusive cognitive categories (i.e., maintenance —reading
or repeating the text on the computer’s screen, orientation —navigation in the Web site or
searching for other information, evaluation —judging the quality, content or structure of
the Web site, and elaboration —recalling past knowledge or experience). Based on the
degree to which that each category requires information process, these categories
composed a hierarchy from low to high as: maintenance, orientation, evaluation and
elaboration. If one thought involved two categories, it was coded into the higher category
that required more sophisticated information processing (e.g., if a thought involved both
evaluation and elaboration, it was coded as elaboration because elaboration requires more
information processing than evaluation does). The coding scheme for this present study
does not have the category of orientation because the materials used in this study were
text messages, not Web sites, and thus did not require any navigation or information
search.
In term of segmenting thoughts, this study used the same approach as Dillard and
Peck (2001) did in their study where they measured individuals’ cognitive responses to
different PSAs. Instead of taking a regular sentence as a thought unit as Eveland and
Dunwoody (2000) did, this study segmented thoughts in a more detailed manner. For
example, a sentence such as “This message bothers me because it is not always the case
that smokers have bad breath” composes two thought units at the break point of


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