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Young Smokers Cognitive and Affective Responses to Gain-framed and Loss-framed Antismoking Message: A Think Aloud Protocol Study
Unformatted Document Text:  Framing Antismoking Message – 14 “because.” Thoughts that were plain expressions of emotions, such as “This is frightening,” or “This is scary,” were not included in the coding because the affective responses were measured by questionnaires, which provided more reliable measurement. Thoughts that were irrelevant or did not involve any level of cognitive processing were excluded; for example, “That’s about it,” or “That’s about all what I can think of.” Dependent Variables Dependent variables in this study are three parts: cognitive responses, fear control responses, and affective responses. Cognitive responses and fear control responses were measured by coding thoughts from think aloud protocols; affective responses were self- ratings on questionnaires. Cognitive Processing Measures The cognitive processing measures in this study are: maintenance, message evaluation and elaboration. Maintenance. Maintenance refers to reading, or repeating the information presented in the message. If a participant was simply verbalizing a sentence when reading it, the thought was coded as maintenance. Evaluation. Evaluation, or message evaluation, is assessment of the presented message, regarding its wording, quality, and persuasiveness. For example, thoughts such as “It’s kinda a dumb statement there,” “The statement is a cliché,” “I think this message can be worded in a better way,” and “I think this statement can be persuasive to deter those who don’t smoke from starting to smoke” were coded into this category. Elaboration. Elaboration occurs when individuals engage in thoughts related to their past experience or knowledge. Elaboration thoughts are further divided into these

Authors: Cheng, I-Huei. and Cameron, Glen.
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Framing Antismoking Message –
14
“because.”
Thoughts that were plain expressions of emotions, such as “This is frightening,” or
“This is scary,” were not included in the coding because the affective responses were
measured by questionnaires, which provided more reliable measurement. Thoughts that
were irrelevant or did not involve any level of cognitive processing were excluded; for
example, “That’s about it,” or “That’s about all what I can think of.”
Dependent Variables
Dependent variables in this study are three parts: cognitive responses, fear control
responses, and affective responses. Cognitive responses and fear control responses were
measured by coding thoughts from think aloud protocols; affective responses were self-
ratings on questionnaires.
Cognitive Processing Measures
The cognitive processing measures in this study are: maintenance, message
evaluation and elaboration.
Maintenance. Maintenance refers to reading, or repeating the information
presented in the message. If a participant was simply verbalizing a sentence when
reading it, the thought was coded as maintenance.
Evaluation. Evaluation, or message evaluation, is assessment of the presented
message, regarding its wording, quality, and persuasiveness. For example, thoughts such
as “It’s kinda a dumb statement there,” “The statement is a cliché,” “I think this message
can be worded in a better way,” and “I think this statement can be persuasive to deter
those who don’t smoke from starting to smoke” were coded into this category.
Elaboration. Elaboration occurs when individuals engage in thoughts related to
their past experience or knowledge. Elaboration thoughts are further divided into these


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