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Young Smokers Cognitive and Affective Responses to Gain-framed and Loss-framed Antismoking Message: A Think Aloud Protocol Study
Unformatted Document Text:  Framing Antismoking Message – 15 categories: beliefs, evaluation of behavioral outcome, attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, behavior intention, behavior, and antismoking advertisements. Belief. The belief category applies to cognitive thoughts on risk susceptibility, or likelihood of certain outcomes to happen. The messages used in this study address the negative and positive outcomes as they are likely to happen if people smoke or if people do not smoke, so agreement with the message, such as “I think it’s true,” and “I agree with this statement” indicate their beliefs that such outcomes are likely to happen and were coded into this category. Outcome Evaluation. Outcome evaluation is when a person engages in thinking of the severity of the risk or the favorableness of an outcome related to smoking. For example, thoughts such as, “I think having a lung cancer is a serious problem,” and “I don’t wanna have yellow teeth,” are evaluation of the outcomes. In addition, if participants engaged in an elaboration thought on an possible way to easily offset or decrease the severity of an outcome caused by smoking, the thought was also coded into outcome evaluation but with an opposite valence; for example, “Bad breath can be easily covered up by gums.” Attitude. Attitude toward smoking refers to a personal opinion or attitude whether smoking, as an act overall, is good or bad. Such opinion is different from a judgment on the likelihood of an outcome happening or the severity of a certain outcome, for example, “Some people started smoking in college and I think it’s a dumbest decision that you could ever make,” “I kept telling my sister, who is only 16 now, smoking is really a bad idea,” or “Smoking is something enjoyable, but some people just feel guilty when they

Authors: Cheng, I-Huei. and Cameron, Glen.
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Framing Antismoking Message –
15
categories: beliefs, evaluation of behavioral outcome, attitudes, subjective norms,
perceived behavioral control, behavior intention, behavior, and antismoking
advertisements.
Belief. The belief category applies to cognitive thoughts on risk susceptibility, or
likelihood of certain outcomes to happen. The messages used in this study address the
negative and positive outcomes as they are likely to happen if people smoke or if people
do not smoke, so agreement with the message, such as “I think it’s true,” and “I agree
with this statement” indicate their beliefs that such outcomes are likely to happen and
were coded into this category.
Outcome Evaluation. Outcome evaluation is when a person engages in thinking of
the severity of the risk or the favorableness of an outcome related to smoking. For
example, thoughts such as, “I think having a lung cancer is a serious problem,” and “I
don’t wanna have yellow teeth,” are evaluation of the outcomes. In addition, if
participants engaged in an elaboration thought on an possible way to easily offset or
decrease the severity of an outcome caused by smoking, the thought was also coded into
outcome evaluation but with an opposite valence; for example, “Bad breath can be easily
covered up by gums.”
Attitude. Attitude toward smoking refers to a personal opinion or attitude whether
smoking, as an act overall, is good or bad. Such opinion is different from a judgment on
the likelihood of an outcome happening or the severity of a certain outcome, for example,
“Some people started smoking in college and I think it’s a dumbest decision that you
could ever make,” “I kept telling my sister, who is only 16 now, smoking is really a bad
idea,” or “Smoking is something enjoyable, but some people just feel guilty when they


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