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Young Smokers Cognitive and Affective Responses to Gain-framed and Loss-framed Antismoking Message: A Think Aloud Protocol Study
Unformatted Document Text:  Framing Antismoking Message – 17 elaboration on their own smoking-related behaviors. Antismoking Ads. This category includes elaboration thoughts on antismoking advertisements, antismoking campaigns or nonsmoking information in general that participants have seen, have heard, or have been told before, for example, “This kind of reminds me of the ‘Truth’ ads that I see everywhere,” and “The information is out there, but it does nothing to help you quit smoking.” Valence. The valence of a thought is decided into positive, negative, and neutral, based on whether the thought is for or against the arguments presented in the messages or antismoking stances in general. If the valence could not be decided either as positive or negative, it was coded as neutral. Fear Appeal Reaction Measures In the model of Witte’s (1998) EPPM, fear appeal reaction include danger control responses and fear control responses. Danger control responses refer to positive belief, attitude, intention and behavior adaptive change in accordance of a nonsmoking stance. The present study looks at smokers’ concurrent responses to messages, and measures their fear control responses as part of their reactions. Fear Control Responses. To measure the fear control responses, think aloud protocols are coded into three categories: perceived manipulation, defensive avoidance, and denial. Perceived Manipulation. Perceived manipulation includes the thoughts regarding: perception of the researcher’s role and intent, or emotional reactions (e.g., anger) about this intent toward the shown message or the assumed person who wrote/said so. For example, thoughts such as “Is this research a part of an antismoking campaign that your

Authors: Cheng, I-Huei. and Cameron, Glen.
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Framing Antismoking Message –
17
elaboration on their own smoking-related behaviors.
Antismoking Ads. This category includes elaboration thoughts on antismoking
advertisements, antismoking campaigns or nonsmoking information in general that
participants have seen, have heard, or have been told before, for example, “This kind of
reminds me of the ‘Truth’ ads that I see everywhere,” and “The information is out there,
but it does nothing to help you quit smoking.”
Valence. The valence of a thought is decided into positive, negative, and neutral,
based on whether the thought is for or against the arguments presented in the messages or
antismoking stances in general. If the valence could not be decided either as positive or
negative, it was coded as neutral.
Fear Appeal Reaction Measures
In the model of Witte’s (1998) EPPM, fear appeal reaction include danger control
responses and fear control responses. Danger control responses refer to positive belief,
attitude, intention and behavior adaptive change in accordance of a nonsmoking stance.
The present study looks at smokers’ concurrent responses to messages, and measures
their fear control responses as part of their reactions.
Fear Control Responses. To measure the fear control responses, think aloud
protocols are coded into three categories: perceived manipulation, defensive avoidance,
and denial.
Perceived Manipulation. Perceived manipulation includes the thoughts regarding:
perception of the researcher’s role and intent, or emotional reactions (e.g., anger) about
this intent toward the shown message or the assumed person who wrote/said so. For
example, thoughts such as “Is this research a part of an antismoking campaign that your


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