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Young Smokers Cognitive and Affective Responses to Gain-framed and Loss-framed Antismoking Message: A Think Aloud Protocol Study
Unformatted Document Text:  Framing Antismoking Message – 18 advisor is doing?” and “Whoever says this must be a nonsmoker” were coded into this category. Message Derogation Message derogation includes defiance, derogation, or contempt toward the shown message or the assumed person who wrote/said so, contempt or anger toward other smoking information recalled. Defensive Avoidance. Defensive avoidance includes the thoughts regarding avoiding subsequent thoughts about the message, and resisting to awareness of the issue. For example, thoughts such as “This doesn’t really make me think of anything,” “I just don’t worry about it,” and “I just wanna enjoy life and not afraid over every little thing that could happen” were coded into this category. Denial. Denial includes the thoughts regarding: blocking off personal associations with the issue, and denial of being at risk. For example, thoughts such as “I am still young and this has not much to do with me” and “I don’t really smoke that much” were coded into this category. Affect Measures To measure the affective reactions to each message, participants were asked to rate their feelings on seven-point scales (none of this feeling/a great deal of this feeling) in response to the question, “The short statement that I just read made me feel…?” There were 25 item of feelings: irritated, angry, guilty, anxious, annoyed, aggravated, fearful, scared, afraid, dismal, sad, surprised, astonished, startled, elated, happy, cheerful, contented, mellow, tranquil, calm, and peaceful. As mentioned earlier, this present study borrowed measurement from the recent study of Dillard and Peck (2001) that tested affective responses to health issue related

Authors: Cheng, I-Huei. and Cameron, Glen.
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Framing Antismoking Message –
18
advisor is doing?” and “Whoever says this must be a nonsmoker” were coded into this
category.
Message Derogation
Message derogation includes defiance, derogation, or contempt toward the shown
message or the assumed person who wrote/said so, contempt or anger toward other
smoking information recalled.
Defensive Avoidance. Defensive avoidance includes the thoughts regarding
avoiding subsequent thoughts about the message, and resisting to awareness of the issue.
For example, thoughts such as “This doesn’t really make me think of anything,” “I just
don’t worry about it,” and “I just wanna enjoy life and not afraid over every little thing
that could happen” were coded into this category.
Denial. Denial includes the thoughts regarding: blocking off personal associations
with the issue, and denial of being at risk. For example, thoughts such as “I am still
young and this has not much to do with me” and “I don’t really smoke that much” were
coded into this category.
Affect Measures
To measure the affective reactions to each message, participants were asked to rate
their feelings on seven-point scales (none of this feeling/a great deal of this feeling) in
response to the question, “The short statement that I just read made me feel…?” There
were 25 item of feelings: irritated, angry, guilty, anxious, annoyed, aggravated, fearful,
scared, afraid, dismal, sad, surprised, astonished, startled, elated, happy, cheerful,
contented, mellow, tranquil, calm, and peaceful.
As mentioned earlier, this present study borrowed measurement from the recent
study of Dillard and Peck (2001) that tested affective responses to health issue related


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