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Young Smokers¡¦ Cognitive and Affective Responses to Gain-framed and Loss-framed Antismoking Message: A Think Aloud Protocol Study
Unformatted Document Text:  Framing Antismoking Message – 20 Framing. Text messages were framed to highlight either the gains (positive outcomes) or the losses (negative outcomes) of behaviors. Smoking related outcomes were used to create instances of messages: (1) addiction, (2) heart and lung functions, and physical fitness, (3) teeth color, and (4) breath and clothes. Two types of message frames and four types of outcomes yielded a total of eight messages (see Table 1 in appendix). Participants were repeatedly exposed to gain-framed and loss-framed messages. Procedures The procedures in this study are three-parted: the pretest questionnaire that measured beliefs and behaviors, the experiment where participants viewed messages and the think aloud protocols were recorded, and the inducement check that followed right after the experiment. Experiment Design. This study used within-subject design with one factor of two levels (gain-framing vs. loss-framing), and the data were collected through think-aloud protocols and questionnaires. Messages were constructed into gain and loss-framed, stressing four kinds of positive/negative outcomes related to smoking (see appendix). Each participant received two gain-framed and two loss-framed messages, and each message pertained to different smoking-related outcomes A complete combination of different orders of outcomes and orders of framing yields a total of 124 ways of presenting messages (see Figure 1). To reduce the orders, the order of message outcomes was arranged with the technique of Latin Square, producing four outcome orders (1-3-2-4, 2-4-1-3, 3-2-4-1, and 4-1-3-2). All the six possible ways of arranging the message frames was used. With the four outcome orders and the six message framing orders, the experiment had a total of 24 ways of presenting

Authors: Cheng, I-Huei. and Cameron, Glen.
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Framing Antismoking Message –
20
Framing. Text messages were framed to highlight either the gains (positive
outcomes) or the losses (negative outcomes) of behaviors. Smoking related outcomes
were used to create instances of messages: (1) addiction, (2) heart and lung functions, and
physical fitness, (3) teeth color, and (4) breath and clothes. Two types of message frames
and four types of outcomes yielded a total of eight messages (see Table 1 in appendix).
Participants were repeatedly exposed to gain-framed and loss-framed messages.

Procedures
The procedures in this study are three-parted: the pretest questionnaire that measured
beliefs and behaviors, the experiment where participants viewed messages and the think
aloud protocols were recorded, and the inducement check that followed right after the
experiment.
Experiment Design. This study used within-subject design with one factor of two
levels (gain-framing vs. loss-framing), and the data were collected through think-aloud
protocols and questionnaires. Messages were constructed into gain and loss-framed,
stressing four kinds of positive/negative outcomes related to smoking (see appendix).
Each participant received two gain-framed and two loss-framed messages, and each
message pertained to different smoking-related outcomes
A complete combination of different orders of outcomes and orders of framing
yields a total of 124 ways of presenting messages (see Figure 1). To reduce the orders,
the order of message outcomes was arranged with the technique of Latin Square,
producing four outcome orders (1-3-2-4, 2-4-1-3, 3-2-4-1, and 4-1-3-2). All the six
possible ways of arranging the message frames was used. With the four outcome orders
and the six message framing orders, the experiment had a total of 24 ways of presenting


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