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Young Smokersˇ¦ Cognitive and Affective Responses to Gain-framed and Loss-framed Antismoking Message: A Think Aloud Protocol Study
Unformatted Document Text:  Framing Antismoking Message – 21 the messages, to which participants were randomly assigned (see Figure 2). Thus each participant was presented with four messages, two gain-framed and two loss-framed, and each message related to one type of outcome. Pretest. The experiment materials and procedures were pretested on two college students recruited in the same university. The first participant’s responses to the message order suggested that the messages on teeth color, and the message on breath and clothes should not be adjacent. Thus the message order in the experiment design was revised accordingly. The wording on the messages was also revised after this pretest. It was found that the participant was not able to differentiate whether the emphases of the messages were “gains” or “losses,” if the messages were framed with a same- consequence approach. Thus, the stimulus materials were revised with a different- consequence approach. More specifically speaking, a gain-framed message with emphasis on avoidance of a negative outcome (i.e., “A person who does not smoke is less likely to have heart disease”) was revised into stress the possibility of negative outcomes, such as (i.e., “A person who does not smoke is more likely to have a healthy heart”). The second pretest confirmed the revised messages, the arrangement of orders, and the length of time were all appropriate. Experiment Procedure. Participants were run individually in this study, and whole process took about 30 minutes. Each participant was greeted and explained that the purpose of this study was to understand how people respond to different health messages and they would be verbalizing their thoughts during process. Participants were told that there was no right or wrong answer, they simply needed to speak aloud any thoughts coming to their mind, and they would be reminded if they forgot to verbalize their

Authors: Cheng, I-Huei. and Cameron, Glen.
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Framing Antismoking Message –
21
the messages, to which participants were randomly assigned (see Figure 2). Thus each
participant was presented with four messages, two gain-framed and two loss-framed, and
each message related to one type of outcome.
Pretest. The experiment materials and procedures were pretested on two college
students recruited in the same university. The first participant’s responses to the message
order suggested that the messages on teeth color, and the message on breath and clothes
should not be adjacent. Thus the message order in the experiment design was revised
accordingly. The wording on the messages was also revised after this pretest. It was
found that the participant was not able to differentiate whether the emphases of the
messages were “gains” or “losses,” if the messages were framed with a same-
consequence approach. Thus, the stimulus materials were revised with a different-
consequence approach. More specifically speaking, a gain-framed message with
emphasis on avoidance of a negative outcome (i.e., “A person who does not smoke is less
likely to have heart disease”) was revised into stress the possibility of negative outcomes,
such as (i.e., “A person who does not smoke is more likely to have a healthy heart”). The
second pretest confirmed the revised messages, the arrangement of orders, and the length
of time were all appropriate.
Experiment Procedure. Participants were run individually in this study, and whole
process took about 30 minutes. Each participant was greeted and explained that the
purpose of this study was to understand how people respond to different health messages
and they would be verbalizing their thoughts during process. Participants were told that
there was no right or wrong answer, they simply needed to speak aloud any thoughts
coming to their mind, and they would be reminded if they forgot to verbalize their


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