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Young Smokers¡¦ Cognitive and Affective Responses to Gain-framed and Loss-framed Antismoking Message: A Think Aloud Protocol Study
Unformatted Document Text:  Framing Antismoking Message – 24 item of the benefits-versus-costs scale (see Table 4), but not on the other bad-versus-good one (see Table 5). RQ1 & RQ2: Effects of Message Framing on Cognition RQ1 and RQ2 ask whether message framing has an influence on how much individual engage in cognitively processing the smoking information. Although on average loss-framed messages generated more cognitive thoughts, gain-framed messages had more positive thoughts, and loss-framed messages generated more thoughts with negative or neutral valences, gain-framed messages and loss-framed messages did not differ on the valence of cognitive thoughts, and nor did they differ in the number of cognitive thoughts provoked (see Table 6 through 9). RQ3: Effect of Message Framing on Attitude Toward the Message RQ3 asks whether message framing has an influence on an individual’s attitude toward the message. On the scale of attitude toward the message, loss-framed messages were found to have higher score than gain-framed messages (see Table 10). RQ4: Effect of Message Framing on Perceived Effectiveness RQ4 addresses whether message framing has influence on how the message is considered to be more persuasive. On the index of perceived effectiveness message, a significant effect was found. Loss-framed messages were found perceived as more persuasive than gain-framed messages (see Table 11). RQ5 & RQ6: Effects of Message Framing on Affective Responses In the tests of the message framing effect on each of the raw affect items, it was found the loss-framed messages aroused more feelings on the item of fear (Mean (loss) = 2.33; Std. Dev. =1.47 vs. Mean (gain) = 1.83, Std. Dev. = .85; p< .05), and gain-framed

Authors: Cheng, I-Huei. and Cameron, Glen.
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Framing Antismoking Message –
24
item of the benefits-versus-costs scale (see Table 4), but not on the other bad-versus-good
one (see Table 5).
RQ1 & RQ2: Effects of Message Framing on Cognition
RQ1 and RQ2 ask whether message framing has an influence on how much
individual engage in cognitively processing the smoking information. Although on
average loss-framed messages generated more cognitive thoughts, gain-framed messages
had more positive thoughts, and loss-framed messages generated more thoughts with
negative or neutral valences, gain-framed messages and loss-framed messages did not
differ on the valence of cognitive thoughts, and nor did they differ in the number of
cognitive thoughts provoked (see Table 6 through 9).
RQ3: Effect of Message Framing on Attitude Toward the Message
RQ3 asks whether message framing has an influence on an individual’s attitude
toward the message. On the scale of attitude toward the message, loss-framed messages
were found to have higher score than gain-framed messages (see Table 10).
RQ4: Effect of Message Framing on Perceived Effectiveness
RQ4 addresses whether message framing has influence on how the message is
considered to be more persuasive. On the index of perceived effectiveness message, a
significant effect was found. Loss-framed messages were found perceived as more
persuasive than gain-framed messages (see Table 11).
RQ5 & RQ6: Effects of Message Framing on Affective Responses
In the tests of the message framing effect on each of the raw affect items, it was
found the loss-framed messages aroused more feelings on the item of fear (Mean
(loss)
=
2.33; Std. Dev. =1.47 vs. Mean
(gain)
= 1.83, Std. Dev. = .85; p< .05), and gain-framed


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