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Young Smokers¡¦ Cognitive and Affective Responses to Gain-framed and Loss-framed Antismoking Message: A Think Aloud Protocol Study
Unformatted Document Text:  Framing Antismoking Message – 25 messages aroused more feelings on the item of cheerful (Mean (loss) =1.30; Std. Dev. = .84 vs. Mean (gain) = 1.71, Std. Dev. = 1.17; p< .05). On the index of fear, the message framing effect was not significant (see Table 9); but on the index of happiness, gain-framed messages still aroused more feelings than loss-framed messages did (see Table 13). The effect of framing was not found on other affect indices although loss-framed messages generally aroused more feelings of anger, sadness and guilt (see Table 14, 15 and 16), and gain-framed messages, more contentment and surprise (see Table 17 and 18). RQ7: Effect of Message Framing on Fear Control Responses RQ7 addresses about whether gain-framed messages and loss-framed messages differ in arousing the emotional process of fear control. Overall, data from analysis showed that there was a pattern that loss-framed messages were associated with more fear control responses than gain-framed messages were. When the effect of message framing was tested on the three compounded items, the difference was not significant (see Table 19). When the effect of message framing was tested on each item (i.e., perceived manipulation, defensive avoidance and denial), the effect was found significant on denial (see Table 20, 21, and 22). RQ8: Frequencies of Cognitive Thoughts The number of thoughts, frequencies, mean (thoughts per person) and standard deviations for each of the variables are reported in the summary of the think aloud protocol analyses (see Table 23). The descriptive data answered RQ8 by showing that participants spent most of their thoughts on discussing about likelihood for an outcome to happen (45%), judging the severity of an outcome (23%), and evaluating the messages presented (11%). In terms of the valence of cognitive thoughts, over than half of the

Authors: Cheng, I-Huei. and Cameron, Glen.
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Framing Antismoking Message –
25
messages aroused more feelings on the item of cheerful (Mean
(loss)
=1.30; Std. Dev. = .84
vs. Mean
(gain)
= 1.71, Std. Dev. = 1.17; p< .05). On the index of fear, the message framing
effect was not significant (see Table 9); but on the index of happiness, gain-framed
messages still aroused more feelings than loss-framed messages did (see Table 13). The
effect of framing was not found on other affect indices although loss-framed messages
generally aroused more feelings of anger, sadness and guilt (see Table 14, 15 and 16),
and gain-framed messages, more contentment and surprise (see Table 17 and 18).
RQ7: Effect of Message Framing on Fear Control Responses
RQ7 addresses about whether gain-framed messages and loss-framed messages
differ in arousing the emotional process of fear control. Overall, data from analysis
showed that there was a pattern that loss-framed messages were associated with more fear
control responses than gain-framed messages were. When the effect of message framing
was tested on the three compounded items, the difference was not significant (see Table
19). When the effect of message framing was tested on each item (i.e., perceived
manipulation, defensive avoidance and denial), the effect was found significant on denial
(see Table 20, 21, and 22).
RQ8: Frequencies of Cognitive Thoughts
The number of thoughts, frequencies, mean (thoughts per person) and standard
deviations for each of the variables are reported in the summary of the think aloud
protocol analyses (see Table 23). The descriptive data answered RQ8 by showing that
participants spent most of their thoughts on discussing about likelihood for an outcome to
happen (45%), judging the severity of an outcome (23%), and evaluating the messages
presented (11%). In terms of the valence of cognitive thoughts, over than half of the


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