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Young Smokersˇ¦ Cognitive and Affective Responses to Gain-framed and Loss-framed Antismoking Message: A Think Aloud Protocol Study
Unformatted Document Text:  Framing Antismoking Message – 26 thoughts (54%) are for the arguments presented in the messages or for the stance of antismoking (see Table 24). Compared with cognitive thoughts, fear control responses are fewer in number and more evenly distributed into three sub-categories of perceived manipulation, defensive avoidance, and denial. Defensive avoidance appeared most frequently (37%) than perceived manipulation (31%) and denial (31%) (see Table 25). Discussions Review and Discussion Data from think aloud protocol analysis suggested when confronted with smoking information, participants engaged in thinking about the likelihood for a certain outcome to happen or whether it is a direct result of smoking, much more than they elaborated on the severity of the outcomes. This provides a potential explanation for the inconsistency in the past studies that tested message framing effects. Prospect Theory proposes message framing influences individuals’ perceived value of an outcome because of shifts in reference; whereas if individuals do not engage in evaluating the severity or favorableness of the outcomes, there may not be chances for the effects of message framing to occur. The finding of elaboration on the possibility of the smoking related outcomes s also suggested the importance of presenting accurate and informative messages in smoking cessation campaigns. Information such as scientific findings supported by statistics or reputable sources can reinforce individuals’ “belief” that certain outcomes are likely to happen. Although participants mostly believed the arguments in the presented messages,

Authors: Cheng, I-Huei. and Cameron, Glen.
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Framing Antismoking Message –
26
thoughts (54%) are for the arguments presented in the messages or for the stance of
antismoking (see Table 24).
Compared with cognitive thoughts, fear control responses are fewer in number and
more evenly distributed into three sub-categories of perceived manipulation, defensive
avoidance, and denial. Defensive avoidance appeared most frequently (37%) than
perceived manipulation (31%) and denial (31%) (see Table 25).
Discussions
Review and Discussion
Data from think aloud protocol analysis suggested when confronted with smoking
information, participants engaged in thinking about the likelihood for a certain outcome
to happen or whether it is a direct result of smoking, much more than they elaborated on
the severity of the outcomes. This provides a potential explanation for the inconsistency
in the past studies that tested message framing effects. Prospect Theory proposes
message framing influences individuals’ perceived value of an outcome because of shifts
in reference; whereas if individuals do not engage in evaluating the severity or
favorableness of the outcomes, there may not be chances for the effects of message
framing to occur.
The finding of elaboration on the possibility of the smoking related outcomes s also
suggested the importance of presenting accurate and informative messages in smoking
cessation campaigns. Information such as scientific findings supported by statistics or
reputable sources can reinforce individuals’ “belief” that certain outcomes are likely to
happen. Although participants mostly believed the arguments in the presented messages,


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