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Young Smokersˇ¦ Cognitive and Affective Responses to Gain-framed and Loss-framed Antismoking Message: A Think Aloud Protocol Study
Unformatted Document Text:  Framing Antismoking Message – 27 they still argued other factors could lead to same outcomes, (which were coded as negative thoughts) or questioned about the statements, (which were coded as neutral thoughts). In the think aloud protocols, it was observed that participants not only criticized the messages shown at the experiment had no source but also had a concern for the “truth” value of the messages they have seen in smoking campaigns; for example, they said, “Lots of times, the Truth ads were not sourced” and “people were lying,” and expressed anger at the antismoking ads using scare tactics. However, this study found loss-framed smoking messages were perceived with more positive attitudes toward messages and stronger perceived effectiveness in convincing people to believe the statements and/or persuade people to stop smoking or avoid use of cigarettes. Although many participants responded the loss-framed messages were “too clichĂ©,” they felt gain-framed messages were also “tricky;” and although they did not favor fear appeals in the messages, they felt only messages that could make them feel scary were persuasive ones. Additionally, recent research has suggested that when information in a message violates expectations, it is subject to greater scrutiny (Baker & Petty, 1994; Maheswaran & Chaiken, 1991; Maheswaran, Mackie, & Chaiken, 1992). Thus, since cigarette warnings and most antismoking messages are loss-framed, gain- framed antismoking messages received more feeling of surprise and assumingly were less expected by the participants, they were scrutinized more closely and perceived as less convincing. Even though effects of message framing were not observed with an influence on individuals’ cognitive processing of messages, a pattern was observed that loss-framed messages aroused more negative feelings whereas gain-framed messages aroused more

Authors: Cheng, I-Huei. and Cameron, Glen.
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Framing Antismoking Message –
27
they still argued other factors could lead to same outcomes, (which were coded as
negative thoughts) or questioned about the statements, (which were coded as neutral
thoughts). In the think aloud protocols, it was observed that participants not only
criticized the messages shown at the experiment had no source but also had a concern for
the “truth” value of the messages they have seen in smoking campaigns; for example,
they said, “Lots of times, the Truth ads were not sourced” and “people were lying,” and
expressed anger at the antismoking ads using scare tactics.
However, this study found loss-framed smoking messages were perceived with more
positive attitudes toward messages and stronger perceived effectiveness in convincing
people to believe the statements and/or persuade people to stop smoking or avoid use of
cigarettes. Although many participants responded the loss-framed messages were “too
cliché,” they felt gain-framed messages were also “tricky;” and although they did not
favor fear appeals in the messages, they felt only messages that could make them feel
scary were persuasive ones. Additionally, recent research has suggested that when
information in a message violates expectations, it is subject to greater scrutiny (Baker &
Petty, 1994; Maheswaran & Chaiken, 1991; Maheswaran, Mackie, & Chaiken, 1992).
Thus, since cigarette warnings and most antismoking messages are loss-framed, gain-
framed antismoking messages received more feeling of surprise and assumingly were less
expected by the participants, they were scrutinized more closely and perceived as less
convincing.
Even though effects of message framing were not observed with an influence on
individuals’ cognitive processing of messages, a pattern was observed that loss-framed
messages aroused more negative feelings whereas gain-framed messages aroused more


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