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Young Smokersˇ¦ Cognitive and Affective Responses to Gain-framed and Loss-framed Antismoking Message: A Think Aloud Protocol Study
Unformatted Document Text:  Framing Antismoking Message – 28 positive affects. Significant differences were measured on the affect items of “fearful”, “cheerful”, and the scale for happiness. According to Dillard and Peck (2001), the affect of fear suggests a motivation of protection and action of changing behaviors, and happiness suggests a feeling of self-rewarding. But it takes more exploration to conclude whether/which negative emotions or positive affects work better than the other in motivating smokers to change behaviors. This suggests for people who engage in fear control responses, fear appeal or messages arousing negative emotions will turn they away from the messages. Participants’ typical fear control responses are denying themselves as smokers (i.e., higher frequency), justifying they were still very young and the possibilities of the negative outcomes to happen on them were rare. This suggests smoking cessation messages can emphasize more on personal relevance to young smokers’ life and promoting self-efficacy with more action-oriented advices. Limitations and Implications This study has limitation on its medium sample size but provides an understanding on how young smokers process smoking-related information and how message framing has an influence on arousing emotional reactions. Findings from this study also suggest, from the perspective of fear appeal theories, loss-framed messages may arouse more fearful affect and can elicit more fear control responses. Message framing effects can be tested in a more natural manner, instead of using a few short sentences as this study did. However, this study had an advantage over the past studies that used usual message framing stimuli such as brochures or video presentations, because this study guaranteed individuals did engage in processing the information, and

Authors: Cheng, I-Huei. and Cameron, Glen.
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Framing Antismoking Message –
28
positive affects. Significant differences were measured on the affect items of “fearful”,
“cheerful”, and the scale for happiness. According to Dillard and Peck (2001), the affect
of fear suggests a motivation of protection and action of changing behaviors, and
happiness suggests a feeling of self-rewarding. But it takes more exploration to conclude
whether/which negative emotions or positive affects work better than the other in
motivating smokers to change behaviors. This suggests for people who engage in fear
control responses, fear appeal or messages arousing negative emotions will turn they
away from the messages.
Participants’ typical fear control responses are denying themselves as smokers (i.e.,
higher frequency), justifying they were still very young and the possibilities of the
negative outcomes to happen on them were rare. This suggests smoking cessation
messages can emphasize more on personal relevance to young smokers’ life and
promoting self-efficacy with more action-oriented advices.
Limitations and Implications
This study has limitation on its medium sample size but provides an understanding
on how young smokers process smoking-related information and how message framing
has an influence on arousing emotional reactions. Findings from this study also suggest,
from the perspective of fear appeal theories, loss-framed messages may arouse more
fearful affect and can elicit more fear control responses.
Message framing effects can be tested in a more natural manner, instead of using a
few short sentences as this study did. However, this study had an advantage over the past
studies that used usual message framing stimuli such as brochures or video presentations,
because this study guaranteed individuals did engage in processing the information, and


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